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Universität Potsdam (2008)

Reservoir sedimentation in dryland catchments : modelling and management

Mamede, George Leite

Titre : Reservoir sedimentation in dryland catchments : modelling and management

Auteur : Mamede, George Leite

Université de soutenance : Universität Potsdam

Grade : Doctor rerum naturalium (Dr. rer. nat.) 2008

Résumé partiel
Semi-arid environments are mainly characterized by scarce water resources and are usually subject to risks of water stress. In these regions, water supply for drinking and irrigation purposes depends strongly on storage in surface reservoirs and sediment deposition in these reservoirs affects adversely the water storage. In order to reproduce the complex behaviour of sediment deposition in reservoirs located in semi-arid environments and the effects of using sediment management techniques, a reservoir sedimentation model is developed and coupled within the WASA-SED model, which simulates rainfall-runoff processes and sediment transport at the hillslope and river network. The reservoir sedimentation model consists of two modelling approaches, which may be applied according to reservoir size and data availability. For reservoirs with information about their geometric features (reservoir topography, stage-area and stage-volume curves) and physical properties of sediment deposits, such as deposition thickness, grain size distribution of sediment deposits and sediment densities, a detailed modelling approach of reservoir sedimentation may be applied. For reservoirs without those characteristics, a simplified modelling approach is used. The detailed modelling approach of reservoir sedimentation enables the assessment of sediment deposition pattern in reservoirs and the evaluation of sediment release efficiency of sediment management techniques. It simulates sediment transport along the longitudinal profile of a reservoir. The reservoir is divided into cross sections to elaborate the sediment budget. The sediment transport component is calculated using a non-uniform sediment transport approach based on the concept of sediment carrying capacity. Four different sediment-transport equations can be selected for the simulations. The simplified modelling approach of reservoir sedimentation is suitable to simulate water and sediment transfer in dense reservoirs network. Nevertheless, it allows simulating neither sediment management techniques, nor spatial distribution of sedimentation. In this approach, the reservoirs are classified into small and strategic reservoirs according to their location and size. Strategic reservoirs are medium and large-sized reservoirs located on main rivers at the sub-basin’s outlet or reservoirs of particular interest. The small reservoirs are located at tributary streams and represented in the model in an aggregate manner by grouping them into size classes according to their storage capacity. A cascade routing scheme is used to describe the upstream-downstream position of the reservoir classes. The water and sediment balances of small reservoirs are computed for one hypothetical representative reservoir of mean characteristics.

Mots clés : reservoir sedimentation , sediment management , modelling , dryland catchments , sediment transport

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Page publiée le 13 octobre 2008, mise à jour le 1er décembre 2018