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Université de Shihezi (2017)

Study on Ecological Degradation Mechanism and Reconstruction Simulation of Semi-arid Ecology Fragile Mining Area

胡蒙蒙;

Titre : Study on Ecological Degradation Mechanism and Reconstruction Simulation of Semi-arid Ecology Fragile Mining Area

Auteur : 胡蒙蒙;

Grade : Master’s Theses 2017

Université : Université de Shihezi

Résumé
Exploitation of coal resources has brought huge economic benefits,the most obvious effect is the land use change(LUCC),all the discussions in this paper were based on LUCC.90% of the coal mine are located in arid and semiarid climate zone.The climate is dry,little drier,and high winds,the environment is particularly sensitive.The research of ecological degradation mechanism based on LUCC in these areas was few,the study focused on analyzing land use change and forecasting future trends.There are few studies on the characterization,process and mechanism of LUCC in mining area.In this paper,the main problems discussed in order to reveal the main driving of ecological degradation in the semi-arid ecological fragile mine is human disturbance or natural environment changes.And provide the basis for the corresponding reclamation and reconstruction measures.We took Yijinhuoluoqi,the typical semi-arid ecosystems fragile mining area,for the study area,first of all,with 3S platform,analyzed the spatial and temporal evolution of land use and landscape pattern,even to assess vulnerability.Secondly,through the results of mathematical statistics and field trips,the corresponding regression analysis wad used to reflect the main reasons of mining area ecological degradation.Finally,the corresponding reconstruction simulation of the region was used to explore the measures of ecological reconstruction.The main contents and conclusions of the paper are as follows :(1)The spatial and temporal changes of land use in semi-arid ecological fragile mining area were studied,and evolution pattern of mining landscape pattern was revealed from the two aspects of landscape scale and type.Vulnerability assessment of the mining area by set pair analysis,geo-statistical analysis and spatial autocorrelation analysis.The results show the degree and speed of LUCC has increased,since 1990,embodied in the construction land area was increased ;grass to other land is more obvious.Land use information entropy increased from 1.311 Nat in 1990 to 1.362 Nat in 2015,land use disorder was enhanced,Grassland occupied an absolute advantage in all landscape types,accounting for more than 50%.The area with high vulnerability of landscape pattern was located in the northeastern region,and the trend expanded from west to east,"high-high" value of vulnerability distribution was more dispersed,part of the region showed expansion state,landscape pattern vulnerability of Mining cities has been enhanced.(2)Based on the logistic and CCA models,the LUCC driving force was investigated and the results were shownthe explanatory variables of change in cultivated land,man-made driving was more significant than natural driving from 1990 to 2002.The natural driving factors of construction land use change from 2002 to 2015 only had DEM,and the effect of all man-driven factors was obvious.the main driving force of grassland change was different in different time periods.For different types of land,due to the intensity of action was different,the natural factor and human factor were different.The results of CCA sequencing analysis showed that the effect of LUCC was more obvious by human-driven.(3)Changes of vegetation coverage in the mining area were studied,though the inter-annual variation and trend analysis,we found the average temperature showed a gradual increase trend in Yijinhuoluoqi from 2000 to 2015,temperature rose 0.318 ℃ every 5 years,average of NDVI about 0.4661,a slight improvement in vegetation status nearly 16 years.And the relationship between the climatic factors was discussed,we found correlation coefficient between precipitation and NDVI is 0.675(P≤0.01),because the increase of rainfall caused vegetation to grow rapidly.With the increase of precipitation monthly,the NDVI monthly of Yijinhuoluoqi also increased,and precipitation played a decisive role in vegetation NDVI,but the impact of human activities cannot be ignored.(4)Based on the study of driving factor evaluation,the CA-Marcov model of scene simulation was used to analyze in what circumstances of reconstruction is more reasonable,we found in the case of ecological protection scenario,compared with the trend development,the area differences of landscape element were smaller,but the shape of the patch tended to be more regular and fragmentation had a significant reduction,we should be taken to the ecological protection of the way to reconstruction.Combined with field investigation and interviews,etc.,to explore the ecological reconstruction,recovery measures of study area.How to deal with the ecological environment constraint is the bottleneck and difficulty of the ecological reconstruction in semi-arid ecological fragile mining area,this problem need to be further researc

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Page publiée le 27 janvier 2018