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Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (2004)

Studies on Genetic Diversity, Al Tolerance Selection Method and Effectiveness of Al Tolerance Breeding Program in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

ANAS

Titre : Studies on Genetic Diversity, Al Tolerance Selection Method and Effectiveness of Al Tolerance Breeding Program in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

Auteur : ANAS

Université de soutenance : Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology

Grade : Doctorate of Agriculture 2004

Résumé
Breeding of sorghum tolerance to aluminum toxicity is necessary to improve sorghum production in the arid and semi-arid tropical area. Therefore, evaluation of sorghum germplasm, developments of Al tolerance screening technique and development of sorghum genotypes with Al tolerance were carried out in this study. SSR markers could discriminate the sorghum germplasm. Sorghum materials used in this study revealed a wide genetic background. The field experiment also exhibited a wide phenotypic and genotypic variation and a significant correlation was found with genetic diversity assessed by SSR markers. Hematoxylin staining method was proven to be an accurate indicator for Al tolerance and showed a significant correlation with the method by Al-added soil in pots. Some candidate parental lines were selected for using in the breeding program. Crossings between Al-tolerant and high yield genotypes were conducted. The moderately low heritability of Al tolerance and small genetic gain were observed. Dry weight and plant height were most closely associated with Al tolerance based on path analysis, indicating that selection for high dry weight and selection of Al tolerance in early generations was more appropriate to maximize the Al tolerance. Tissue culture was proven to be a useful tool for selecting Al-tolerant plants at the callus level. The differences in callus growth and the percentage of callus formation among genotypes were in agreement with those in the hematoxylin staining screening method. Direct gene transfer into florets-derived sorghum callus using particle bombardment gave GUS gene (gene encoding β-glucuronidase) activities in the callus.

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