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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Allemagne → 2008 → Landscape ecological, phytosociological and geobotanical study of eumediterranean in west of Syria

Universitat Hohhenheim (2008)

Landscape ecological, phytosociological and geobotanical study of eumediterranean in west of Syria

Ghazal, Abdullah

Titre : Landscape ecological, phytosociological and geobotanical study of eumediterranean in west of Syria

Auteur : Ghazal, Abdullah

Université de soutenance : Universitat Hohhenheim

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2008

Résumé partiel
The Eu-Mediterranean vegetation in Syria is widespread over a large geographical area, occupying an altitudinal zone mainly from 300 to 900 m asl., but can be also found outside this range. The study area is located to the west of the longitude 37° E, where this vegetation dominates. A complete field surveying of the landscape for all regions in the study area was carried out. The environmental variables of the landscape (climate, soil, geology, land use, flora and vegetation) were analyzed in order to achieve landscape ecology grouping. The vegetation surveying was carried out according to the Braun-Blanquet method to classify the vegetation according to the phytosociological relationships through applying the ordination method of Factor Analyses of Correspondences (FAC). Integrating plant sociology with other environmental factors enabled compiling a hierarchical framework for landscape classification and mapping from a higher to a lower level of abstraction. Land units were named with reference to indicative phytosociological alliances. That mapping system uses the potential vegetation for studying areas from the national to the local scale of landscape. The legend of the map refers to the EUCORINE land cover project (2003). The Eu-Mediterranean vegetation is organized in three types : Humid and Sub-humid ; Semi-arid ; and Arid. The second type can be further divided into two sub-types : cold and non-cold. The following forest types can be recognized in the Eu-Mediterranean vegetation : 1. Evergreen oak forest : this is classified as Mediterranean maquis, and comprises the major part of the forest vegetation in Syria. The main element of this forest is Quercus calliprinos. This vegetation is classified into two main types : the inland vegetation type, and the humid and sub-humid vegetation type. 2. Semi-deciduous oak forest : it consists of Quercus aegilops vegetation and occurs in many sites in Syria. 3. Coniferous forest : dominated mainly by Pinus brutia as well as few small locations of natural forests of either Pinus halepensis or Cupressus sempervirens. The vegetation of Pinus brutia forests occupies a wide area especially in the western region. These forests are distinguished into three types : humid, sub-humid and semi-arid forests. 4. Non-forest Mediterranean vegetation. 5. Running water banks vegetation. 6. Steppe vegetation. The results of the current study show that the inland Quercus calliprinos vegetation is organized in two different associations, Quercus calliprinos-Crataegus azarolus and Pruneto (tourtuosa)-Quercetum calliprini (ass. nov.) in Jabal Al-Arab and the Anti-Lebanon, respectively. The Quercus calliprinos vegetation in the humid, sub-humid and non-cold semi-arid types is organized into four associations : Querco (infectoria)-Quercetum calliprini (ass. nov.), Styraco (officinalis)-Quercetum calliprini (ass. nov.), Querco (calliprinos)-Phillyreetum mediae and Pistacio (palaestina)-Quercetum calliprini. However, those relations were strong among the northern associations especially between the Pistacio (palaestina)-Quercetum calliprini and the Querco (infectoria)-Quercetum calliprini indicating that they are in different stages of the succession. However, if the maquis were kept extensively protected from human activities and were allowed to grow spontaneously, the composition of the maquis will change from a stand with a rich mixture of species to an almost pure stand of Quercus calliprinos. The richness of climax species in the Querco (infectoria)-Quercetum calliprini, which are used as phytosociological indicators for a climax forest, emphasizes that this association is the climax in the East-Mediterranean region

Mots clés : Landscape ecology , Vegetation , Syrian forests , Eu-Mediterranean , Phytosociology

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Page publiée le 16 octobre 2008, mise à jour le 29 décembre 2018