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Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) 2010

Wildlife Conservation and People’s Livelihoods : Lessons Learnt and Considerations for Improvements. The Case of Serengeti Ecosystem, Tanzania

Mfunda, Iddi Mihijai

Titre : Wildlife Conservation and People’s Livelihoods : Lessons Learnt and Considerations for Improvements. The Case of Serengeti Ecosystem, Tanzania

Auteur : Mfunda, Iddi Mihijai

Université de soutenance : Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)

Grade : Doctoral thesis 2010

Résumé partiel
Protected areas have long been recognized as the single most important method of conserving wildlife and preserving biodiversity. However, the protectionism model of management of protected areas has often displaced people from their lands. The main approach to recent wildlife management has been to include local people in planning and management, and the sharing of benefits from conservation. In conservation, participation can take several forms such as manipulative, passive or self-mobilization. Participation as a core paradigm of Community Based Conservation (CBC) always open door for people to regain control over resource management and strengthening their decision-making capabilities. Nevertheless, CBC faces numerous challenges emanating from cultural contexts, socio-economic factors, and the way projects are designed and implemented. Despite some degree of success, most projects and programs have failed to achieve conservation and development objectives. Neither protectionism nor CBC has been sufficient in addressing conservation threats. Unsustainable use continues affecting the biodiversity. Unsustainable bushmeat hunting, for instance, has effects on ecosystem dynamics, and threatens the future of targeted species and their habitats. In efforts to enhance the management of protected areas, most countries in Africa adopted CBC in 1980’s to address biodiversity conservation, poverty reduction through benefit sharing, and natural resources governance. Despite these new developments hunting remains an important economic activity that local people can hardly survive without bushmeat. On the other hand, crop raiding by wildlife challenges crop production in areas where agriculture is part of rural livelihoods. Crop loss from wildlife causes food insecurity, increases poverty, and consequently fuels unsustainable use of natural resources. The thesis examines wildlife conservation and people’s livelihoods in the west and east of Serengeti National Park, northern Tanzania. First, the thesis examines the relationship between government conservation institutions, District Councils, private investors, and local people in order to identify the factors influencing people perceptions towards protected areas and their relationship with the identified stakeholders. Second, it reviews the foundation, processes, and levels of participatory wildlife management. Third, it identifies the levels and causes of bushmeat hunting with a view to suggest sustainable solutions. Fourth, it examines crop production in the presence of wildlife, other influencing factors, and the need for improved people’s livelihoods.

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Page publiée le 10 février 2018