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University of Nairobi (2017)

An analysis of local dynamics in conflicts over use of natural resources in the Tana delta region, Tana river county, Kenya

Hanshi, Nasra

Titre : An analysis of local dynamics in conflicts over use of natural resources in the Tana delta region, Tana river county, Kenya

Auteur : Hanshi, Nasra

Université de soutenance : University of Nairobi

Grade : MASTER OF ARTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT 2017

Résumé
Tana Delta is a vast but underdeveloped region that lies along the Kenyan Coast. Poverty rates for 2012 stood at 70 % and infrastructure of any kind is very limited or virtually non-existent ( Ministry of Agriculture, 2013 ) . The Tana Delta is home to numerous ethnic groups including Somali, Orma, Pokomo, Wardei, Wailwana, Watha Luo, Giria ma and Swahili people amongst others. The dominant tribes are the Orma and Pokomo , which constitute --- % of the delta population (WE NEED A SOURCE) . For many years, conflicts and cooperation over use of resources have characterized tense relationships among ethnic groups, competing land use types, and between local communities and investors. This study aimed at assessing the extent to which existing utilization of natural resources in the Tana Delta region fueled violent and non-violent conflict during the period 2012 to 2014 and the impact that such conflicts had on livelihoods and development in the delta region. Specifically, the study addressed three objectives:1)to identify actors involved in conflict and determine the role each actor played in the conflict situation ; 2)to determine strategies used by local communities in the Delta Region to manage and resolve natural resource conflicts and the challenges experienced while implementing such strategies ; 3)to assess the long-and short-term impacts of long,– running resource conflicts on livelihoods and development of the area. This study used a cross-section research design that employed a questionnaire to collect data from a stratified sample of 384 household heads in all the 35 sub locations in Tana Delta region (geographically equivalent to Tana Delta Sub-county of Tana River County) from a total population of 18,790 household heads (KNBS, 2009). A field observation guide was used to ground-truth data. Data analysis employed measures of relationship such as correlation analysis. The study tested the hypothesis that Regardless of abundancy or scarcity of resources, the Pokomo-Orma conflict will persist in spite of perception. The study findings showed that neither natural resources scarcity nor abundance of natural resources influenced conflict in Tana Delta. Instead governance issues and cultural values that different communities attached to various natural resourceswere the main causes of conflict . In particular, governance issues and value conflicts underlie a lack of mutual understanding on how to share available natural resources like Tana Delta wetlands often generates conflict. Approaches embedded in local tribal customs were most effective in conflict resolution and peacemaking. The impact of re source conflict in the region is negative . The main actors in the resource conflict situations included government organizations, traditional customary institutions, civil society, and private sector . The study concluded that
— - . The study recommends that a lasting solution should be achieved through government and NGO intervention in irrigating the dry areas during the dry season to ensure that the wetlands will no longer be on high demand

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