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China Agricultural University (2017)

Establish Oat-strip Intercropping Pattern in West Region of Northeast China and Research on the Mechanism of Nitrogen Use

钱欣;

Titre : Establish Oat-strip Intercropping Pattern in West Region of Northeast China and Research on the Mechanism of Nitrogen Use

Auteur : 钱欣;

Grade : Doctoral Dissertation 2017

Université : China Agricultural University

Résumé
The establish of intensive and sustainale strip intercropping pattern is an important technical way to optimize the cropping system and ensure the strategic position of agriculture security in Northeast China ;moreover,efficient use of nitrogen fertilizer is a key problem to be solved in this process.A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of yield,nitrogen uptake and economic benefits of three strip intercropping patterns including oat(Avena nuda L.)intercropped maize(Zea mays L.),sunflower(Helianthus annuus L.)and mung bean(Vigna radiate L.)from 2014 to 2015 in Baicheng city,west regions of Northeast China. ;furthermore,mechanism of yield advantages was investigated according to the research of border row effects.Optimum nitrogen application rate and mechanism of nitrogen fertilizer efficient utilization were studied by field experiment and 15N isotope tracer technique in micro-plot from 2015 to 2016.The main results were showed as follow :(1)Oat/sunflower strip intercropping had a higher land use intensity and economic benefit in west regions of Northeast China.Land equivalent ratio and nitrogen uptake equivalent ratio was 1.23~1.38 and 1.29~1.44 respectively.It also had a higher net economic benefit(12515~13209 RMB·hm-2),benefit-cost ratio(3.32~3.45),marginal rate of return(1382%-1484%)and monetary advantage index(2343~3604).(2)In oat/sunflower strip intercropping system,oat and sunflower both had a positive border row effects on yield and nitrogen uptake.The border row of intercropped oat had a higher grain yield(58.6%~88.1%)and nitrogen uptake(24.9%~77.9%)than inner row of sole and intercropped oat(P<0.05)and contributed 44.2%~45.1%,44.8~47.1%to the yield and nitrogen uptake of intercropped oat,which was higher than the border row proportion(1/3).The border row of intercropped sunflower had a higher grain yield(16.6%~68.3%)and nitrogen uptake(18.5%~64.6%)than inner row of sole and intercropped sunflower(P<0.05)and contributed 69.9%~70.8%,70.3%~71.1%to the yield and nitrogen uptake of intercropped sunflower,which was higher than the border row proportion(2/3).(3)The nitrogen application rate at 100 kg-N·hm-2 was optimum in oat/sunflower strip intercropping system.Under this rate,intercropped oat and sunflower both had a higher grain yield,dry matter yield and nitrogen uptake.Furthermore,land equivalent ratio(1.14~1.24),nitrogen uptake equivalent ratio(1.10~1.29),nitrogen agronomy efficiency(12.98~14.46 kg·kg-1,)and apparent nitrogen recovery efficiency(76.32%~67.78%)was the highest uder the three nitrogen application rates.(4)With the increase of nitrogen application rate,the advantages of grain yield and nitrogen uptake in the border row of intercropped oat decreased,on the contrary,it increased in the border row of intercropped sunflower.Sunflower was more competitive than oat among the intercropping system and had a strongest competitveness when the nitrogen application rate was 100 kg·N·hm-2.In the competition for nitrogen fertilizer in current season,border row of intercropped oat was more competitive at low nitrogen application rate(50 kg·N·hm-2)while border row of intercropped sunflower was more competitive at high nitrogen application rates(100,150 kg·N·hm-2.) ;border row of intercropped oat was more competitive in the competition for nitrogen fertilizer in last season at all nitrogen application rates.(5)Intercropping reduced 0-60cm soil layer nitrate nitrogen leaching of sunflower after oat harvest.The nitrate accumulation of sole sunflower mostly distributed in 40-60 cm soil layer(39.95%-50.5%)under all nitrogen rates,while it mostly distributed in 20-40 cm(35.43%~41.85%)in border row and inner row of intercropped sunflower.(6)Intercropping improved the utilization efficiency of nitrogen which applied in last season(Ndff lstase season,border row of oat)and current season(Ndffcurrent season,border row of sunflower).There was no difference between sole and border row of intercropped oat on Ndffcurrent season(percentage and amount)(P>0.05)under all nitrogen rates ;border row of intercropped oat had a higher Ndff last seaon(percentage and amount)than sole oat at 150 kg·N·hm-2(P<0.05).Ndffcurrent season(amount)of border row in intercropped sunflower was significantly higher than sole sunflower at 150 kg·N·hm-2(P<0.05)while Ndff last season(percentage and amount)of border row in intercropped sunflower was significantly lower than sole sunflower at 100 and 150 kg·N·hm-2(P<0.05).(7)Nitrogen fertilizer recovery of border row in intecrpped oat and sunflower(50.9%~81.2%,68.9%-88.5)was higher than sole oat(46.0%~57.9%)and sole sunflower(60.1%~67.7%)at all nitrogen application rates.Sole oat at 100 kg·N·hm-2 had the highest nitrogen fertilizer loss(50.7%)while intercropped sunflower at 150 kg·N·hm-2 was lowest(7.7%)

Mots clés : stirp intercropping; border row effect; interspecific competition; nitrogen use; 15N isotope labelling;

Présentation (CNKI)

Page publiée le 26 mai 2018