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Inner Mongolia Agricultural University (2017)

Comparative Study on Grazing Ecology in Typical Steppe between China and Mongolia of Mongolian Plateau

吴恩岐

Titre : Comparative Study on Grazing Ecology in Typical Steppe between China and Mongolia of Mongolian Plateau

Auteur : 吴恩岐

Grade : Doctoral Dissertation 2017

Université : Inner Mongolia Agricultural University

Résumé partiel
The typical steppe of Chinese Inner Mongolia and Mongolia were both belong to Mongolia plateau.Its natural landform,vegetation characteristics were similar,and the nomadic traditional history had continued over for thousands years.The nomadic production was still keep main mode of production in Mongolia.But in Inner Mongolia,it changed to Settled grazing for 30 years,the meadows were divided by fences,and the nomads gradually disappear.Which grazing system is more in line with the sustainable development and environmental protection of the steppe ecosystem in Mongolia plateau ?It is an important problem for grassland animal husbandry in Mongolia plateau.Therefore,it has great theoretical and practical significance to compare the effects of different grazing systems and different grazing intensities on steppe vegetation ecology in typical steppe between Mongolia and Chinese Inner Mongolia.In this study,a comparative study of the typical steppe grazing including the settled grazing and two season grazing of Inner Mongolia and the settled grazing and four seasons nomadic of Mongolia were conducted.The main results were as follows:1.Comparison results of grazing intensity of different grazing systems in Typical Steppe of China and Mongolia:Chinese Inner Mongolia typical steppe to settle on the severe over grazing area(58.95%)was significantly higher than that of Mongolia’s.nomadic steppe(14.89%) ;Mongolia’s moderate grazing and under grazing area(74.47%)was significantly higher than that of Chinese Inner Mongolia(12.63%).The average overgrazing rate of typical steppe in Inner Mongolia was significantly higher than that of the typical steppe in Mongolia.2.Difference of effects of grazing patterns on vegetation characteristics in typical steppe of China and Mongolia:The degree of steppe degradation in Inner Mongolia was much higher than that in Mongolia.In Nomadic Monglian steppe,its were significantly higher than that of Inner Mongolian steppe,those were the total coverage(60.40%),the total species coverage(64.85%),the base coverage(37.64%),the withered grass coverage(27.77%),the heading rate(12.61%),the plant numbers(183.44/m2),the grass yield(249.21 gFW/m2)and the species number(18.73/m2).Among them,the base coverage,the withered grass coverage,and the gravel coverage were very significant,which can be used as an important index of steppe degradation.No significant difference in between China and Mongolian steppe at the reproductive Shoot and the vegetative shoot height,in view of the influence of factors such as grazing and climate,Its should not be used as evaluation index of steppe degradation.3.Effects of different grazing system on biodiversity(life form and water ecoform)in communities of typical steppe in China and Mongolia:The Mongolian typical steppe community had more species number of perennial than that in Inner Mongoli typical steppe communities.However,Chinese typical steppe communities had annuals and biennial species more than Mongolian steppe.Mongolia’s nomadic grazing vegetation communities of perennial and biennial plant species were significantly higher than that of two season grazing steppe in Inner Mongolia,but the annual species was significantly lower than that of Inner Mongolia.The water ecoform of Mongolian steppe which was settled or nomadic grazing had Xerophyted,Intermediate xerads,Intermediate mesophytes,Mesophtyes and Hygrophytes species more than that in Inner Mongolia steppe which under settled grazing or tow season grazing.The nomadic mode of Mongolia was more stable than the settled grazing in Inner Mongolia,which helps to maintain the biodiversity and stability of community species.4.Results of study on characteristics of vegetation communities in typical steppe of China and Mongolia under water resource for grazing :

Mots clés : Mongolian plateau; Typical steppe of China and Mongolia; Nomadic culture; Non-balanced ecosystem; Grazing Ecology;

Présentation (CNKI)

Page publiée le 25 mai 2018