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Northwest A&F University (2018)

Effects of Management Measures on Soil Physicochemical Properties and Crop Yield on the Loess Plateau, China

付威;

Titre : Effects of Management Measures on Soil Physicochemical Properties and Crop Yield on the Loess Plateau, China

Auteur : 付威;

Grade : Master’s Theses 2018

Université : Northwest A&F University

Résumé partiel
The Loess Plateau is an important food production area in northwestern China.The area is located in arid or semi-arid regions and belongs to the rain-fed agricultural region.Without irrigation conditions,water is the main factor limiting the development of local agriculture.Moreover,the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall in this area is uneven,and high potential evapotranspiration could severely limit agricultural sustainable development in the region.Therefore,improving water use efficiency,promoting crop growth,and increasing grain production are crucial for accelerating the development of agricultural production under the condition of limited water resources.In order to study the effect of different field management measures on the physical and chemical properties of soil water,heat and crop yield in agricultural production in the area.A located field experiment was conducted at the Changwu Agro-ecological Experimental Station on the Loess Plateau of Northwest A&F University(35°14’N,107°40’E).Some soil physicochemical properties and agronomic traits had been tested,the main physical parameters included soil bulk density(ρb),total soil porosity( ?),soil compaction(SC),soil temperature(T),soil water content(θm,θv),and soil saturated hydraulic conductivity(KS).Soil chemical indicators were choosed soil organic matter(SOM)total nitrogen(TN),nitrate nitrogen(NO3—N),ammonium nitrogen(NH4+-N),total phosphorus(TP),available phosphorus(AP),available potassium(AK),pH.The agronomic traits of winter wheat included plant height(H),leaf area index(LAI),biomass(B),grain yield(Y),and yield components.Some related indicators were calculated,included evapotranspiration(ET),economic benefits(EB),Best index(BI),Rainfall harvest(RH),soil water storage(SWS),water use efficiency(WUE),Precipitation utilization efficiency(PUE).Research indicates,1.Conventional tillage(nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers)treatment(NP)Compared with the long-term non-fertilization control treatment(CK),SC was significantly decreased,which value was 1074.9±28.6 kPa cm-2,and KS(0.026 cm min-1)was higher than CK(0.016 cm min-1)increased by 62.5%.The soil nutrients content was changed significantly,and SOM,TN,NO3—N,NH4+-N,TP,and AP were increased significantly,and they were 16.9%,11.1%,114.4%,55.1%,and 141.2%higher than CK,respectively.The AK content was significantly reduced at 112.9±9.6 g kg-1.The H and LAI of winter wheat were also significantly increased,WUE and PUE were significantly increased,Y increased by more than 1 time finally.2.Plastic-film mulching group treatments(based on nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers)Compared with conventional tillage(NP)treatments,different plastic-film mulching patterns had different effects on soil physicochemical properties and agronomic traits of winter wheat.The effects of growth period mulching(GM)and summer fallow period mulching(SM)onρb and ?did not reach significant levels,but N&P total plastic film mulching in the whole year treatment(NPFWT)in the annual coverage group(WM)will significantly increase theρb and reduce ?.All plastic-film mulching treatments have reduced the KS.The KS of NPFGT in the growth period was0.013±0.001 cm min-1,which was the most affected and was reduced by 50%.The mulching treatment in different periods was divided into two kinds of mulching modes,namely half-mulching group(HM)and total-mulching group(TM).

Mots clés : plastic-film mulching; saturated hydraulic conductivity; soil bulk density; grain yield; water use efficiency;

Présentation (CNKI)

Page publiée le 9 octobre 2018