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İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi (2014)

Investigation Of Effects Of Major Climate Parameters On Crop Water Consumption Using Remote Sensing Methods

ÖZCAN Orkan

Titre : Investigation Of Effects Of Major Climate Parameters On Crop Water Consumption Using Remote Sensing Methods

Başlıca İklim Parametrelerinin Bitki Su Tüketimine Etkilerinin Uzaktan Algılama Yöntemleri İle Araştırılması

Auteur : ÖZCAN Orkan

Université de soutenance : İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi

Grade : DOKTORA TEZİ 2014

Résumé partiel
Wheat is one of the most over-production of agricultural products around the world and in our country, about 9.5 million hectares of land is planted, 20 million tons of product is obtained varies from year to year. Monitoring the potential impacts of recommended product pattern for different planting regions, levels of adaptation to the ecological conditions of the area and changing climate conditions as drought or excessive rainfall etc. on plant growth is possible with remote sensing techniques and GIS. In this study, first of all the plant characteristics and the product features of different stations were investigated by using ground stations and with the help of SPOT 5 satellite images acquired within the periods of phenological development of the plant. Accordingly, the ecological conditions causing variations in plant development and the adaptation differences of the products were identified. In addition, transpiration from plants and evaporation from the underlying soil is an important factor in water resources and hydrological studies, for estimating irrigation water requirements when planning irrigation systems, especially in arid and semi-arid conditions of South-Eastern Anatolia region. One of the aim of the study is to designate the water requirement for wheat fields cultivated on different soil types by estimating the actual crop evapotranspiration of wheat crop by using Remote Sensing techniques and Geographical Information Systems. SPOT 5 images acquired on growing season were used to determine the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI) and to generate the crop coefficients for each month of wheat crop season. As a rapidly developing country Turkey, needs sufficient amount of irrigated agricultural products for growing population ; cheap, continuous and high quality renewable energy for the industry ; qualified water for domestic uses especially for the regions that are having low level of life standards with respect to the national average standards. The Atatürk Dam is the fourth largest clay-cored rock fill dam in the world, which plays an important role in the development of Turkey’s energy and agriculture sector. It was constructed on the Euphrates River located in semi-arid Southeastern Turkey in the 1980s as the central component of a large-scale regional development project for the Southeastern Anatolia region (GAP). Determination of the impacts of the Atatürk Dam on agro-meteorological aspects to the Southeastern Anatolia region is yet another investigation in terms of spatial and temporal variations. Change detection and environmental impacts due to water-reserve changes in Atatürk Dam Lake have been determined and evaluated using multi temporal Landsat satellite imageries and meteorological datasets within a period of 1984 to 2011. The relationships between seasonal water reserve changes and irrigated plains under changing climatic factors primarily driving vegetation activity (monthly, seasonal, and annual fluctuations of rainfall rate, air temperature, humidity) on the watershed have been investigated from the previous 30 years to present conditions. For all images,geometric and atmospheric corrections and Tasseled Cap transformations were carried out to attain changes in surface reflectance and denoting disturbance of Landsat reflectance data. The resulting dataset was used in a linear trend analysis to characterize spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation-cover development. Analysis has been conducted in ecological units that have been determined by climate and land cover/use. Climate has a dynamic structure denoting perpetual variability in temporal and spatial scales. Depending on space and time, rainfall amount has the most variation in the components of the climate system. Extreme environmental events, such as floods, droughts, rainstorms, and strong winds have severe consequences for human society. Changes in extreme weather and climate events have significant impacts and are among the most serious challenges to society in coping with a changing climate. The cost of damage caused by extreme climate events is rising all over the world. The European Environment Agency (EEA) report ("Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Europe 2012") stated that the cost of damage had increased from € 9 billion in the 1980s to €13 billions in the 2000s. In the United States, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reported that $188 billion in damage was caused by the severe weather events in 2011 and 2012. Understanding and identifying hydrometeorologic extreme events and their changes through time are key in sustaining agriculture and socio-economic development. Planning for weatherrelated emergencies, agricultural and reservoir management and insurance risk calculations, all rely on knowledge of the frequency of these extreme events. The assessment of extreme precipitation is an important problem in hydrologic risk analysis and design. Erosion and removal of the fertile soil layer through hydro climatic extreme events is also a serious problem in semi-arid to arid regions, especially in Mediterranean climates.

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