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Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE) 2017

Tecnologia alternativa em drenagem urbana : telhado verde

SILVA, Thomas Fernandes da

Titre : Tecnologia alternativa em drenagem urbana : telhado verde

Auteur : SILVA, Thomas Fernandes da

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE)

Grade : Mestrado - Engenharia Civil e Ambiental 2017

The urbanization in a disorderly way of the Brazilian cities causes the reduction of green areas and the increase of impermeable areas, favoring the increase in the speed of the surface runoff, causing the water to be displaced from the environment as quickly as possible, generating flood areas downstream. The new alternatives proposed to solve problems of urban drainage seek, in an efficient way, treat them as close as possible to the source. An alternative, natural and sustainable is the implementation of green roofs, which is characterized by the application of vegetation on the roof of buildings with adequate waterproofing and drainage. This work has the purpose of investigating the functionality of a green roof installed in the IPA in the city of Caruaru, in relation to its capacity of retention of the flow of the drained pluvial water, and to evaluate the treatment of the effluent of the green roof by the system of descending filtration in sand. Typical vegetation of semi-arid regions, Babosa (Aloe Vera) and Coroa-de-Frade (Melocactus Zehntneri) was used, and compared to the conventional roof. After the use of rainfall simulator, the retention capacity of the roof was analyzed through the water balance in the system. Bench tests were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of two sand filter configurations, with different particle sizes, in relation to the improvement of the quality of green roofs and synthetic effluent, developed in the laboratory. The green roofs showed good retention capacity, reaching values of 75% and 86%, for the green roofs of Babosa and Coroa de Frade, respectively. There was a delay in the occurrence of the peak flow of up to 14 minutes on the roof of the Babosa green roof compared to the conventional roof (ceramic tile) and a delay of up to 21 minutes on the roof green Crown of Frade in relation to the conventional Roof Ceramics). Since the Coroa-de-Frade vegetation is a good possibility of use for this purpose in semi-arid regions. The performance of the filter was analyzed through water quality parameters for irrigation, Electric Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Carbonates, Bicarbonates, Chlorides, Sulphates, NitrogenNitrate, Ammoniacal Nitrogen, Phosphorus-Phosphate, Potassium, Boron, Acidity or Alkalinity and Sodium Adsorption Ratio. According to the analyzes, it was observed that the sand filter was may be considered as an alternative for the treatment of the effluent generated by the green roof under study.

Mots clés : Semiarid region. Extreme events. Water retention capacity of green roof. Treatment filter.


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