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Accueil du site → Doctorat → États-Unis → 2017 → Evaluating the Impact of Land Cover Composition on Water, Energy, and Carbon Fluxes in Urban and Rangeland Ecosystems of the Southwestern United States

Arizona State University (ASU) 2017

Evaluating the Impact of Land Cover Composition on Water, Energy, and Carbon Fluxes in Urban and Rangeland Ecosystems of the Southwestern United States

Templeton, Nicole

Titre : Evaluating the Impact of Land Cover Composition on Water, Energy, and Carbon Fluxes in Urban and Rangeland Ecosystems of the Southwestern United States

Auteur : Templeton, Nicole

Université de soutenance : Arizona State University (ASU)

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2017

Résumé
Urbanization and woody plant encroachment, with subsequent brush management, are two significant land cover changes that are represented in the southwestern United States. Urban areas continue to grow, and rangelands are undergoing vegetation conversions, either purposely through various rangeland management techniques, or by accident, through inadvertent effects of climate and management. This thesis investigates how areas undergoing land cover conversions in a semiarid region, through urbanization or rangeland management, influences energy, water and carbon fluxes. Specifically, the following scientific questions are addressed : (1) what is the impact of different urban land cover types in Phoenix, AZ on energy and water fluxes ?, (2) how does the land cover heterogeneity influence energy, water, and carbon fluxes in a semiarid rangeland undergoing woody plant encroachment ?, and (3) what is the impact of brush management on energy, water, and carbon fluxes ?
The eddy covariance technique is well established to measure energy, water, and carbon fluxes and is used to quantify and compare flux measurements over different land surfaces. Results reveal that in an urban setting, paved surfaces exhibit the largest sensible and lowest latent heat fluxes in an urban environment, while a mesic landscape exhibits the largest latent heat fluxes, due to heavy irrigation. Irrigation impacts flux sensitivity to precipitation input, where latent heat fluxes increase with precipitation in xeric and parking lot landscapes, but do not impact the mesic system. In a semiarid managed rangeland, past management strategies and disturbance histories impact vegetation distribution, particularly the distribution of mesquite trees. At the site with less mesquite coverage, evapotranspiration (ET) is greater, due to greater grass cover. Both sites are generally net sinks of CO2, which is largely dependent on moisture availability, while the site with greater mesquite coverage has more respiration and generally greater gross ecosystem production (GEP). Initial impacts of brush management reveal ET and GEP decrease, due to the absence of mesquite trees. However the impact appears to be minimal by the end of the productive season. Overall, this dissertation advances the understanding of land cover change impacts on surface energy, water, and carbon fluxes in semiarid ecosystems

Sujets : Environmental engineering / Land use planning / Range management / Brush Management / Eddy Covariance / Evapotranspiration / Land Cover / Net Ecosystem Exchange / Rangeland Management

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