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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Royaume-Uni → 2016 → Environmental regulation of commercial flower production in Ethiopia.

University of Warwick (2016)

Environmental regulation of commercial flower production in Ethiopia.

Woldeyohannes, Mekdes

Titre : Environmental regulation of commercial flower production in Ethiopia.

Auteur : Woldeyohannes, Mekdes

Université de soutenance : University of Warwick

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2016

Résumé _ Floriculture, a flourishing industry since the end of 1990s, is a source of livelihood for thousands of people in Ethiopia. Investment into the sector has been promoted with the objective of creating employment opportunities, foreign exchange earnings and links to the international market. Flowers are now among major export commodities along-side other agricultural products such as coffee and oil seeds. The sector’s contribution as a source of employment is considerable in terms of poverty reduction as poverty is a deep rooted problem in Ethiopia. However, there are challenges related to employment conditions and environmental externalities. This thesis examines into the problems of environmental protection and regulatory frameworks regarding the floriculture industry. It provides analysis on factors that affect the effective implementation of regulatory frameworks. The thesis addresses the main environmental challenges associated with flower production. The main analysis is that in Ethiopia the problem basically lies with excessive application of pesticides and fertilisers ; the impact eventually extends to affecting water and soil quality. Concerns about excessive utilization of surface and ground water are also addressed. With case studies of two freshwater lakes, the thesis demonstrates how establishment of floriculture companies adjacent to lakes compromise water quality and quantity, and affects aquatic life. Focusing on each environmental problem, the thesis provides analysis on existing regulatory frameworks and identifies lack of effective implementation as the root of the problem leading to environmental degradation. The country’s level of development has been a restricting factor to channel resources necessary to employ expertise and infrastructure. At the same time, there are tendencies of prioritizing economic development, through attracting investment, than environmental protection driven by the belief that strict regulation obstructs investment. The thesis also highlights that absence of effective and adequate regulatory framework has been a challenge to the objectives of investment promotion in Ethiopia and the right to improved living standard and to sustainable development guaranteed in the Constitution. The thesis suggests that strict monitoring and inspection of flower production process is needed, and the primary response to regulate environmental impacts must rest on the government. It identifies a number of intervention areas, including strengthening pesticide registration and control system, putting in place water use and discharge permit systems, requiring Environmental Impact Assessment reports and supporting companies to implement sustainable flower production methods. Promoting good agricultural production methods, private environmental standards and certification schemes can play role in improving environmental standards. However, compliance expenses can restrict industry wide implementation of the standards. The analysis offered in the thesis provides an evaluation of the main challenges facing the Ethiopian flower industry at a time of increasing volatility in the market. This is the first legal analysis of the environmental impact of flower industry in Ethiopia.

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