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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Royaume-Uni → 1996 → Aspects of passive cooling and the potential savings in energy, money and atmospheric pollutants emissions in existing air conditioned mosques in Saudi Arabia

University of Edinburgh (1996)

Aspects of passive cooling and the potential savings in energy, money and atmospheric pollutants emissions in existing air conditioned mosques in Saudi Arabia

Abideen, Khairy Mohammad

Titre : Aspects of passive cooling and the potential savings in energy, money and atmospheric pollutants emissions in existing air conditioned mosques in Saudi Arabia

Auteur Abideen, Khairy Mohammad

Université de soutenance : University of Edinburgh

Grade : PhD Doctor of Philosophy 1996

Résumé
In Saudi Arabia, air conditioning is excessively used in both existing traditional and contemporary buildings. This process is currently responsible for (i) consuming substantial amounts of energy produced on a national level (40% of the total electricity produced) and (ii) emitting 11.7% of the national greenhouse and ozone-depleting gas emissions level (227,846,173 tonnes of C02 equivalent). The process, therefore, contributes largely to both economic and environmental threats of both global warming risks and ozone destruction. Normally, in Saudi Arabia as in other countries where cooling is a seasonal or year-round requirement, existing large air conditioned buildings with intermittent occupancy patterns are today conventionally installed with air conditioning units. These tend to consume substantial amounts of electricity incurring high cost and emitting huge amounts of atmospheric pollutants compared to other smaller buildings types under continuous occupancy patterns. In Saudi, mosques form a significantproportion ofthese air conditioned buildings and their symbolic and cultural importancegives them an even greater significancethan their simple numbers. This study investigates the potential savings in air conditioning energy and reductions in atmospheric pollutants in existing air conditioned mosques in Saudi Arabia. It aims to study in particular the adoption of (1) proposed passive cooling strategy and (2) proposed passive cooling improvement measures for existing mosques. Existing air conditioned mosques in the city of Jeddah form the primary subject of this study. The proposed passive cooling strategy has been identified by a careful analysis of the climatic data, thermal comfort in mosque and mosque’s occupancy pattern. The strategy is primarily related to the use of air movement and thermal mass for substantial number of prayers all year-round. As for the proposed passive cooling improvement measures, by surveying 48 existing air conditioned mosques, three passive cooling systems have been identified for improvements ; the insulation values of the mosques’ envelope, shading and night ventilation. Based on a better understanding of these passive cooling systems, combined with an analysis of the current economical, structural and constructional situations within existing air conditioned mosques, a coherent set of improvement measures has been established namely ; (1) increased insulation values of mosques’ fabric by adding various building and insulation materials for walls and roof, (2) increased shading by complete shading of windows and (3) increased night ventilation by ventilating the mosque forthe whole night. Passive cooling evaluation methods, appropriate to the strategy and the measures defined, have been adapted to predict the potential savings in air conditioning energy, money and atmospheric pollutants. These manual methods have been used to predict the various savings that can be achieved by applying the strategy and the measures of improvements to nine case study mosques. A set of comprehensive tables showing the potential savings in air conditioning energy, money and atmospheric pollutants emissions when applying these proposed measures for improving passive cooling systems in existing air conditioned mosques are produced. These tables can be used by architects, by the mosques’ management and by the Ministry of Awkaf (Endowment) who are responsible for mosque procurement and maintenance. Finally, the study has estimated the potential savings ofthese proposed strategy and measures when applied to all existing air conditioned mosques in Jeddah and showing their relative contributions to reducing the national energy consumption and atmospheric pollutants emissions levels.

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