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University of Gezira (2010)

Rain water management model for improved rangeland productivity in Central Butana, Sudan

ABDALLA, ELSADIG AHMED ELFAKI

Titre : Rain water management model for improved rangeland productivity in Central Butana, Sudan

Auteur : ABDALLA, ELSADIG AHMED ELFAKI

Université de soutenance : University of Gezira

Grade : DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in IRRIGATION ENGINEERING 2010

Résumé
Butana is a flat clay plain in North Eastern Sudan, considered as one among the best grazing areas in the country but is one of the poorest area. The area is rich with natural resources, but lacks permanent sources of water. Sometimes the area suffers severe shortage of water which reflects on rangeland condition. This study aimed to maximize benefits from rain water through application of micro and macro water harvesting techniques using remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS). An experiment of water harvesting was conducted in the study area during the rainy seasons of 2006 and 2007. Results showed that the production of the biomass is highly positively correlated with the amount of rainfall with high significance level (P ≤ 0.01). The mean biomass of the three different plots for the six sites is 1.77, 1.63 and 0.96 ton ha-1 respectively, compared to the normal 1.03 ton ha-1. There are positive correlations between the plots area and the biomass production (R²= 0.72). The biomass production of rangeland is a function of harvested water. The Perpendicular Vegetation Index (PVI) is calculated using Spot image (October 2006). This index was used to classify land use, land cover and generate the spatial distribution of annual biomass production. Three main classes of land use were found namely ; crop land, pasture and forest. The PVI and the field survey conducted during 2006 and 2007 were used to map the biomass distribution. Rain use efficiency factor (RUE) calculated by dividing biomass layer by the total annual rainfall was used to select the potential water harvesting sites in the study area. The standard Soil Conservation Service – Curve Number hydrological model was used to estimate the potential runoff amount in central Butana, with a rainfall and a basin coefficient data (curve number). The average potential runoff depth in the study area was estimated as 52 mm yr-1. Hence the annual total expected runoff volume was estimated for the whole study area as 187.2 (106) m3. A general GIS based model has been designed to manage rainfall water in central Butana rangeland. The model links the results of water harvesting experiment, field survey results and the satellite image output to simulate the potential of biomass production and select appropriate location for water harvesting.

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