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University of Gezira (2012)

Evaluation of Community Perception and its Impact on the Exploitation of Natural Resources in Elmanagil Plateau, Sudan

Ahmed, Faiza Abubakr Omer

Titre : Evaluation of Community Perception and its Impact on the Exploitation of Natural Resources in Elmanagil Plateau, Sudan

Auteur : Ahmed, Faiza Abubakr Omer

Université de soutenance : University of Gezira

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Sciences and Natural Resources 2012

Résumé
Most areas in Sudan are exposed to many environmental hazards. One of these areas is Elmanagil Plateau in which this study was undertaken to identify the main environmental problems, evaluate the degree of environmental awareness of the community in the area, assess practices applied by the community and governmental institutions to minimize environmental deterioration, identify and quantify soils susceptible to degradation and provide practical information for sound land use planning and management. These objectives were assured by studying the area environment through illustrated maps, two surveys, one during the rainy season and the other during the dry season. Meteorological data were obtained twenty years back, and a questionnaire to some household villagers to know their socio-economic status and the environmental change and its impact in the area. Then secondary data from Elmanagil hospital were obtained for the common water related diseases in 2010. Soil samples were taken and analysed to determine the soil types in the area. Results revealed that the vegetation cover in the area is similar to that found in semi-dry and woodland savanna, the area is rich in animals such as cows, sheep and goats. The highest average rainfall value occurred during the years 1992-1996, and the lowest during the years 2000-2004. The questionnaire revealed that most of the people were engaged in traditional farming with very low productivity and low income. On the other hand, most of the inhabitants migrate in search of alternative jobs and additional income. The main sources of water were tabs and watersheds and they are insufficient, and the water itself may be polluted. The main water related diseases are malaria, diarrhoea and eye infections. Inhabitants were indifferent about growing trees in and around their houses, and keep their animals inside their houses. People observed that some exotic plants invade the area while the indigenous plants disappeared. The soil types ranged gradually from clay loam in the north and west, cracked clay in the middle and gravel in the Southern part. The middle part of the area is characterized by relatively high levels of sand, silt, nitrogen and organic compounds, but has low level of Ca and CaCO3. Northern part is high in clay and low in sand, silt and nitrogen. The Southern part is low in O.C. Generally all soil samples contain high clay% (>40%) and low values of EC and SAR which classifies them as alkaline non-saline non-sodic clay soils. The average productivity of sorghum was (183 kg/ ha). The community in the area depends on rainfall in their activities and they need to increase their awareness to conserve their environment, so we recommend that the area needs formulation of a comprehensive research plans for environment conservation.

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