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University of Gezira (2013)

Factors Affecting the Fertility of Dairy Cows in Central Gezira, Sudan

Elnour, Mohamed Ahmed Bakheet

Titre : Factors Affecting the Fertility of Dairy Cows in Central Gezira, Sudan

Auteur : Elnour, Mohamed Ahmed Bakheet

Université de soutenance : University of Gezira

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science 2013

Résumé
Infertility in dairy cows which is reflected in production inefficiency is one of the most serious problems facing animal owners in the Sudan. This study was conducted to investigate the factors affecting dairy cows’ fertility in central Gezira. In the first part of the study,147 animal owners in six blocks of the Central Group in the Gezira Scheme were interviewed. The surveyed parameters included dominant cattle breeds, feeding system and feed resources, common health problems and reproductive performance which involved age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), days open (DO) and calving interval (CI). The results showed that the dominant cattle breed was Kenana (69.4%) and there was a tendency of upgrading the local breeds by Friesian breeds (20%). The dominant feeding system was grazing plus supplementary feeding. The crop residues (sorghum, wheat and cotton) represent the main type of roughage (95%) while the concentrate was composed of groundnut cake and wheat bran (64%). Also, it was shown that, AFS was in the range of 30 to > 36 month (85.7%), AFC was 36 – 47 month (54%), DO was 2 - 3 month (70%) and CI was 12 – 18 month (88.5%). The most common health problems were internal parasites mainly Fasciola spp (40%) and bacterial infection (Botulism, 30%).In the second part of the study, three dairy herds (Elbashair, El Shukaba and El Nishishiba dairy farms) were selected to study the effect of nutritional, genetic, physiological and environmental factors on different parameters of fertility. Results showed that the overall mean of milk urea nitrogen (MUN), plasma zinc and copper concentrations were 13.5 mg/dl, 1.48 µg/ml and 0.53 µg/ml, respectively. MUN, body conditions score (BCS) and Cu concentrations significantly (P < 0.05) affected fertility parameters, while Zn concentration had no significant effects on it. Also, the results revealed that breed significantly (P < 0.01) affected fertility parameters whereas parity and season of calving had no significant effect. The study recommended the improvement of nutrition and correction of copper deficiency. Also, selection of early maturing local breeds was strongly recommended.

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