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University of Gezira (2018)

Effects of Three Farming Systems on the Yield of Selected Crops under Rainfed Conditions, Sennar State, Sudan

Abdallah, Mohamoud Abdallah Mohamoud

Titre : Effects of Three Farming Systems on the Yield of Selected Crops under Rainfed Conditions, Sennar State, Sudan

Auteur : Abdallah, Mohamoud Abdallah Mohamoud

Université de soutenance : University of Gezira

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy In Agricultural Engineering, 2018

Résumé
Framing Systems constitute an important determining factor in agricultural production especially in rainfed areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect and suitability of three types of farming systems namely ; Conventional Farming (CF), Conservation (no till) Agriculture (CA), and in-field water Harvesting (WH) on the yield of sorghum, sesame and cowpea crops. Field experiments were conducted in two agro-ecological zones ; Sennar Research Station (semi-arid region) and Abu-Naama Research Station (semi- humid region) ; for two consecutive seasons (2014/2015 and 2015/2016). The experimental work was laid in a split plot design with four replications. The main plots were allocated for crops and the subplots for farming systems. Four different planting machines plus manual seeding were used. The conventional Wide Level Disk (WLD) was used namely for the CF ; two row crop planters (Jumil and Vispa) for the CA ; while two techniques were used for the WH namely deep plowing (chiseling plus manual seeding) and furrow planting using WaHIP planter (Water Harvesting in-Rows Planter). Obtained data were statistically analyzed by using SAS software, version 8-2011. The statistical analysis of the obtained results for the sorghum in Abu-Naama Research Station, indicated that there were significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) between the treatments ; where by conservation agriculture(CA) has the highest grain yield (2594 kg/ha) followed by water harvesting (WH) (2343 kg/ha) ; while the conventional farming (CF) has the lowest yield (2072 kg/ha). No significant differences between treatments were detected in Sennar Research Station ; however conservation agriculture (CA) gave the highest yield followed by in-field water harvesting (WH) ;then the conventional farming (CF), 2106, 1979.7 and 1962 kg/ha, respectively. For the sesame crop there were no significant differences between the farming systems in both sites of the experiments ; but the lowest yield was obtained under conventional farming (CF) 365 and 602 kg/ha in Sennar and Abu-Naama, respectively, while the in-field water harvesting (WH) gave the highest yield followed by conservation agriculture (CA), 449 and 380 kg/ha in Sennar Research Station and 740 and 718 kg/ha in Abu-Naama Research Station, respectively. For the cowpea crop no significant differences were detected between the treatments in both experimental sites, the highest cowpea yield was obtain from in-field water harvesting system (WH) in comparison with other treatments in both Sites. The economic analysis showed that the conservation agriculture (CA) gave the highest Marginal Rate of Return for sorghum (21%), sesame (46%) and for cowpea (8%).The obtained results indicated that in-field water harvesting (WH) and conservation agriculture (CA) could be used successfully in northern and southern Sennar State, with preference to in-field water harvesting (WH) when rainfall in southern Sennar is expected to be below normal.

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Page publiée le 26 novembre 2018