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University of Gezira (2013)

Larvicidal Activity of Maize Fixed Oil Extract against Malaria Mosquito (Anopheles arabiensis Patton)

Ahmed, Rasha Babiker Homida

Titre : Larvicidal Activity of Maize Fixed Oil Extract against Malaria Mosquito (Anopheles arabiensis Patton)

Auteur : Ahmed, Rasha Babiker Homida

Université de soutenance : University of Gezira

Grade : Master of Science (MS) In Biosciences and Biotechnology 2013

Résumé
Sudan is one of the countries severely afflicted with malaria. The spread of resistance of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, to currently use anti-malarial drugs calls for continued efforts to exploit other methods to control the disease. One of these alternative disease control methods aims at discovering new pesticides that target the mosquito vector. It was previously observed that certain extracts of the seeds of corn (Zea mays), of the family Poaceae, exhibited unexpected growth-inhibitory activity towards mosquito larvae. The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of crude and purified constituents of corn-seed fixed oil against larvae of the mosquito (Anopheles arabiensis). Oil-seeds of corn, obtained from ARC, Wad Medani, Sudan, were extracted by the Soxhlet method. The crude hexane extract (oil) from the seed, its purified fractions and the ethanol extract prepared from the defatted seed were bio-assayed against mosquito larvae. Chemical fractionations were carried out by chromatographic methods. Larvicidal activity tests carried out for the crude seed oil for mortality intervals of 1-24 hours showed significant effects for all applied concentrations tested (0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.06 and 0.03%) ; the higher applied concentration of 0.5% causing 80% kill after one hour and 100% mortality after 24 hours. The two fractions obtained from the seed oil, namely the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractionsons, were also tested for larvicidal activity. The saponifiable fraction showed high mortality after 1hours of incubation, reaching 90% mortality at 0.5% and 100% mortality after 4 hours. On the other hand, the unsaponifiable fraction exhibited low larvicidal activity. Crude ethanol extracts of the defatted (hexane extracted), seed marc caused 90% larval mortality at the higher concentration (0.5%) after only 4hours. Two isolated compounds, eluted from PTLC plates were also bioassayed ; only one of them was found to be toxic towards mosquito larvae. The study recommended to run a studies to identification of this active compound.

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