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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Israel → Evolutionary and migratory patterns of pistacia genus, differential adaptation to environmental conditions : a microscale study using remote sensing

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (2016)

Evolutionary and migratory patterns of pistacia genus, differential adaptation to environmental conditions : a microscale study using remote sensing

Kozhoridze Giorgi

Titre : Evolutionary and migratory patterns of pistacia genus, differential adaptation to environmental conditions : a microscale study using remote sensing

Auteur : Kozhoridze Giorgi

Etablissement de soutenance : Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2016

Résumé partiel
Global vegetation distribution is the result of environmental conditions and genetic make-up of plants. In view of the intensive discussions on climate change and its effect on living organisms on earth, it has become necessary to develop new methods and strategies to monitor and follow the changes in global plant distribution. There were two major objectives to the research carried-out in this project : 1. Investigation of the bio-geographical distribution of Pistacia at the global scale and its adaptation to diverse environmental conditions. 2. Development of models for classification and mapping of trees by remote sensing. The two objectives were inter-linked in order to understand the phylogeny of the Pistacia genus and its biological and geographical evolution. In this work we focused on Pistacia trees distribution, classification and mapping as a model system for other tree genera and families using geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) tools. The eleven species of Pistacia are distributed in various climate zones : P. atlantica, P. lentiscus, P. terebinthus and P. palaestina are native to the Mediterranean region ; P. khinjuk and P. vera are native to Central Asia ; P. chinensis and P. weinmannifolia - Eastern Asia ; P. texana, P. mexicana - North America and P. aethiopica – East Africa. For validation and comparative purposes other trees species were studied under natural forest and commercial orchard conditions. The methodologies used to classify and map the trees were GIS and RS. These non-destructive approaches for vegetation distribution analyses enabled us repeated measurements of the same trees in different seasons and years using climate models, soil, landscape parameters and new RS indices developed in this work. At first we mapped the Pistacia trees globally by GIS based on coordinates of over 80,000 trees derived from open access internet Global Biodiversity Information Facility database (GBIF) and our own measurements by a global positioning system (GPS) of coordinates of trees in Israel. Prediction of the current distribution maps of the genus was done by geo-statistical analyses, that were in turn used for modeling the global probability distribution maps of Pistacia at various distant times, approx. 130K, 21K BP and 2050 and 2100 in the future. The geographic distribution of the genus reflected differences in tolerance to various environmental conditions. It was shown that deciduous species of Pistacia grow in more harsh climate conditions in the range of extreme temperatures varying between -26 °C to 47 °C compared to evergreen/semi– deciduous group of species in between -8 °C – 41 °C. The predicted maps enabled estimation of phylogenetic relationships in the genus, based on geographical distances, which were similar to genetic distances. Furthermore, combining the biogeographical results with genetic and paleontological reports, we proposed a new global migratory map of Pistacia that led to its current distribution.

Présentation (BGU)

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Page publiée le 27 novembre 2018