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University of Gezira (2018)

Effect of Deficit Irrigation at Different Growth Stages on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Gezira State, Sudan

Farah, Abdikafi Abdullahi Alasow

Titre : Effect of Deficit Irrigation at Different Growth Stages on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Gezira State, Sudan

Auteur : Farah, Abdikafi Abdullahi Alasow

Université de soutenance : University of Gezira

Grade : Master of Science (MS) in Agricultural Engineering 2018

Résumé
In arid and semi-arid regions, water scarcity is the main limiting factor, where it is difficult to apply full crop water requirements for sustainable crop growth and yield. Therefore, it is important to determine how to maximize crop yields under water deficit conditions. This study was conducted at the Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Gezira, during season 2017. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation at different crop stages on yield and yield components of sunflower. A randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. Five irrigation treatments were used : Irrigation every 10 days throughout the season as control (T1), skipping one irrigation during vegetative stage (T2), during heading stage (T3), during flowering stage (T4), and during seed filling stage (T5). The parameters studied consisted of plant height (cm), stem diameter (cm), leaf area index, head diameter (cm), head weight (g), number of seeds per head, 1000-seed weight (g), empty seeds (%), seed yield (kg/ha) and water productivity (kg/m3). The results showed that deficit irrigation significantly (P ≤ 0.05) effected yield components and yield. Although there were significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) between treatments of irrigation, but there were no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) between means of full irrigation and when deficit irrigation is applied at heading stage. The maximum yield (2173 kg/ha) was obtained by full irrigation followed by deficit irrigation in heading stage (2122 kg/ha). The minimum seed yield (1448 kg/ha) was achieved when applying deficit irrigation at flowering stage which was significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) thus indicating the sensitivity of this stage to deficit irrigation. The study recommended that, for maximum seed yield and efficient water use, deficit irrigation could be applied at heading stage and should be avoided during flowering and seed filling stages.

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