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Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (2017)

Antimicrobial activity of selected plants and their combined preparations against pathogens causing respiratory infections

Onyebuchi, Ukwuoma Collins

Titre : Antimicrobial activity of selected plants and their combined preparations against pathogens causing respiratory infections

Auteur : Onyebuchi, Ukwuoma Collins

Université de soutenance : Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University

Grade : MAGISTER TECHNOLOGIAE : BIOMEDICAL TECHNOLOGY 2017

Résumé
Bacterial infection of the respiratory system is one of the leading causes of death in the world’s population, killing over four million people annually. Treatment of respiratory infections is usually by antibiotics administration. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant pathogens has led to the search for more effective therapeutic agents especially from medicinal plants, as compounds from plants have been shown to possess some therapeutic potential. The aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of three plants, Tetradenia riparia, Leonotis leonurus and Salvia africana-lutea and the activity of their various combined preparations against 27 pathogens usually associated with respiratory ailments. Various solvents were used for extraction of the dried powdered plant materials. The agar disc diffusion antimicrobial assay and the micro-dilution assay methods were used to determine the inhibitory activity and the minimum inhibitory concentration of the plant extracts. The nature of phytochemicals present in the extracts was determined by thin layer chromatography. The results obtained in this study, showed that ethanol produced the highest average extract yield in both the individual and combined plant preparations. A two-way analysis of variance for the disc diffusion assay showed no significant difference in the inhibition zones (Appendix 1 and 2). MIC of 0.8 mg/ml was obtained with S. africana-lutea against S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 and B. cereus ATCC 10976 strains, indicating a strong antibacterial activity. Synergistic interaction (FIC index ranging from 0.20 – 0.50) and a strong antimicrobial activity (MIC values ranging from 0.4 – 0.8 mg/ml), was obtained with the acetone extract of the 1:1 combination of L. leonurus with S. africana-lutea. The XEA and CEF solvent systems eluted the most number of compound spots and produced the best separations. The results obtained in this study validate the traditional use of these plants and their combinations for the treatment of respiratory ailments.

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