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Accueil du site → Doctorat → États-Unis → 1983 → EFFECT OF CROP MANAGEMENT ON SEED QUALITY, SUBSEQUENT SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT AND GRAIN YIELD OF PEARL MILLET (PENNISETUM AMERICANUM (L.) LEEKE)

Kansas State University (1983)

EFFECT OF CROP MANAGEMENT ON SEED QUALITY, SUBSEQUENT SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT AND GRAIN YIELD OF PEARL MILLET (PENNISETUM AMERICANUM (L.) LEEKE)

Okonkwo, Julius

Titre : EFFECT OF CROP MANAGEMENT ON SEED QUALITY, SUBSEQUENT SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT AND GRAIN YIELD OF PEARL MILLET (PENNISETUM AMERICANUM (L.) LEEKE)

Auteur : Okonkwo, Julius

Université de soutenance : Kansas State University

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 1983

Résumé
Pearl millet, Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke, is an important food crop in the semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia. However, millet has problems of low seed vigor and consequently poor field establishment and grain yield. Research has shown that seed density, seed protein, seed size and seed weight are closely related to vigor, seedling survival and grain yield. Objectives of this study were to determine the effect of tiller removal, spikelet removal, nitrogen fertilization, hill planting and head selection on seed density, seed protein, seed size, seed weight, and subsequent crop performance under field and greenhouse conditions. Serere 3A was grown under dryland conditions in 1980, and dryland and irrigated conditions in 1981. Senegal bulk population was grown under dryland and irrigated conditions in 1980 and 1981. Tillers were removed weekly until plants reached physiological maturity. To allow more space for the developing seeds, spikelets were shaved 1.5 cm from top to base of each millet panicle as panicles emerged from the flag leaf. Ammonium nitrate was applied at boot stage in 1980, and split applied at five leaf and boot stages in 1981. Hill planted plots had four plants per hill. Head selection was on basis of seed size. Seeds produced from each management were tested for subsequent seedling vigor and establishment on field and greenhouse experiments. Grain yield was determined on field experiments only. Head selection and spikelet removal significantly improved seed weight, seed size and, in 1981, seed density. Only nitrogen fertilization consistently increased seed protein. Four plants per hill and tiller removal had little effect on seed quality. Subsequent seedling performance under greenhouse conditions showed few treatment differences, suggesting that small differences in seed quality may not be critical in seedling performance under good growing conditions. Greater treatment differences were found under field conditions. Spikelet removal significantly increased seedling establishment and grain yield in four of five field experiments. Head selection increased both in two of three field experiments. It was difficult to separate the effect of seed protein from seed size and density in this study. Ease of head selection makes it attractive. Selection based on seed size instead of head size could substantially increase farmers benefits from head selection management.

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