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Portland State University (2018)

Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Modeling of the Tigris River System in Iraq Using CE-QUAL-W2

Al Murib Muhanned

Titre : Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Modeling of the Tigris River System in Iraq Using CE-QUAL-W2

Auteur : Al Murib Muhanned

Université de soutenance : Portland State University

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Civil & Environmental Engineering 2018

Résumé partiel
The Tigris River is one of two primary rivers in Iraq and is, along with the Euphrates, the main source for drinking and irrigation water in the country. The Tigris River originates in the Taurus Mountains in Turkey, and is 1850 km long. The majority of the river lies within Iraq. The river passes through, and is the primary drinking water source for major cities such as Mosul, Baeji, Samarra, Baghdad (the capital), and Kut. The Tigris River joins the Euphrates River in Qurna city within Basra province to form the Shatt Al-Arab River which eventually discharges into the Persian Gulf. As a result of fluctuations in flow rate along the Tigris River that cause both potential flooding and drought, Mosul Dam was built on the mainstem of the Tigris River upstream of the city of Mosul and was operated starting in July 1986 to control the river flow and to generate hydroelectricity. Some canals were also constructed to divert excess fresh water from the mainstem of the river at Samarra Barrage located 125 km north (upstream) of Baghdad to Tharthar Lake, an artificial lake located 100 km northwest Baghdad city. The Tigris-Tharthar canal, 75 km long, was constructed in 1956 to divert excess water from Samarra Barrage to Tharthar Lake and to prevent potential flooding in Baghdad. During dry seasons, high total dissolved solids (TDS) water is diverted from Tharthar Lake into the mainstem of the Tigris River through the 65 km long Tharthar-Tigris canal, which is located 25 km upstream Baghdad. Due to rapid population growth and increasing industrial activates, the Tigris River is also facing many water quality challenges from inflows of contaminated wastewater from treatment plant stations. A water quality model that simulates the Tigris River system is therefore needed to study the effects of these discharges and how water quality of the Tigris River could be managed. To address this issue, CE-QUAL-W2 was used to develop a 2-D (longitudinal and vertical) hydrodynamic and water quality model of the mainstem Tigris River from Mosul Dam (Rkm 0) to Kut Barrage (Rkm 880). In addition, Tharthar Lake and its canals were modeled. A full suite of hydrodynamic and water quality variables were simulated for the year 2009, including flowrates, water level, and water temperature. Additionally, water quality constituents such as total dissolved solids (TDS), phosphate (PO4), ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), and dissolved oxygen (DO) were also simulated. Bathymetry of the Tigris River and field data such as flowrate, water level, TDS, NO3 were obtained from the Ministry of Water Resources in Iraq, while surface water temperatures of the Tigris River were estimated remotely using Landsat satellites. These satellites provided a continuous observation record of remote sites. Other water quality field data, such as PO4, NH4, BOD, and DO, were estimated from literature values. Meteorological data, including, wind speed, wind direction, air and dew point temperatures, cloud cover, and solar radiation were obtained from the Iraqi Ministry of Transportation, the General Organization for Meteorology and Seismic Monitoring.


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