Informations et ressources scientifiques
sur le développement des zones arides et semi-arides

Accueil du site → Master → Afrique du Sud → Sustainable utilisation of Table Mountain Group aquifers

University of the Western Cape (2010)

Sustainable utilisation of Table Mountain Group aquifers

Duah, Anthony A.

Titre : Sustainable utilisation of Table Mountain Group aquifers

Auteur : Duah, Anthony A.

Université de soutenance : University of the Western Cape

Grade : Magister Scientiae - MSc (Earth Science) 2010

Résumé partiel
The Table Mountain Group (TMG) Formation is the lowest member of the Cape Supergroup which consists of sediments deposited from early Ordovician to early Carboniferous times, approximately between 500 and 340 million years ago. The Table Mountain Group (TMG) aquifer system is exposed along the west and south coasts of South Africa. It is a regional fractured rock aquifer that has become a major source of bulk water supply to meet the agricultural and urban water requirements of the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa. The TMG aquifer system comprises of an approximately 4000 m thick sequence of quartz arenite and minor shale layers deposited in a shallow, but extensive, predominantly eastwest striking asin, changing to a northwest orientation at the west coast. The medium to coarse grain size and relative purity of some of the quartz arenites, together with their well indurated nature and fracturing due to folding and faulting in the fold belt, enhance both the quality of the groundwater and its exploitation potential for agricultural and domestic water supply purposes and its hot springs for recreation. The region is also home to some unique and indigenous floral species (fynbos) of worldwide importance. These and other groundwater dependent vegetation are found on the series of mountains, mountain slopes and valleys in the Cape Peninsula. The hydrogeology of the TMG consists of intermontane and coastal domains which have different properties but are interconnected. The former is characterized by direct recharge from rain and snow melt, deep groundwater circulation with hot springs and low conductivity groundwater. The coastal domain is characterized by shallow groundwater occurrence usually with moderate to poor quality, indirect recharge from rainfall of shallow circulation and where springs occur they are usually cold. The sustainable utilization of the TMG aquifer addressed the issues of the groundwater flow dynamics, recharge and discharge to and from the aquifer ; challenges of climate change and climate variability and their potential impact on the aquifer system. The concept of safe yield, recharge and the capture principle and the integration of sustainable yield provided the basis for sustainable utilization with the adaptive management approach. Methodology used included the evaluation of recharge methods and estimates in the TMG aquifer and a GIS based water balance recharge estimation. The evaluation of natural discharges and artificial abstractions from the TMG aquifer system as well as its potential for future development. The Mann-Kendal trend analysis was used to test historical and present records of temperature and rainfall for significant trends as indication for climate variability and change. The determination of variability index of rainfall and standard precipitation index were additional analyses to investigate variability. The use of a case study from the Klein (Little) Karoo Rural Water Supply Scheme (KKRWSS) within the TMG study area was a test case to assess the sustainable utilization of TMG aquifers. Results show that recharge varies in time and space between 1% and 55% of MAP as a result of different hydrostratigraphic units of the TMG based on geology, hydrology, climate, soil, vegetation and landuse patterns however, the average recharge is from 1% to 5% of MAP.


Version intégrale (5,3 Mb)

Page publiée le 17 mars 2019