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Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (2015)

Wassernutzung und Wassermangelempfindlichkeit bei Sommerweizen

Bräsemann, Ines

Titre : Wassernutzung und Wassermangelempfindlichkeit bei Sommerweizen

Auteur : Bräsemann, Ines

Université de soutenance : Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

Grade : Doctor rerum agriculturarum (Dr. rer. agr.) 2015

Résumé
Water scarcity and drought are big challenges in agricultural production even in parts of Mid-Europe. Wheats from Mediterranean climate with their adaption to the local conditions may be considered a potential source of enhanced drought resistance. Therefore, in two-factorial pot experiments and one-factorial field experiments water use, biomass accumulation, grain yield, yield structure and nitrogen utilization of 2 Mediterranean (Golia, Gönen) and 8 mid-European spring wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) were studied on the experimental station of the Humboldt-University at Berlin. Pot experiments (3 years) were carried out under field site conditions with rain shelter to quantify effects of two watering regimes (well watered, water deficit after heading) and to identify possible differences between cultivars. Grain yield and biomass accumulation showed strong genotypic influence and were significantly reduces by water deficit in two years. Mid-European cultivars out yielded Mediterranean ones with Italian cultivar Golia showing higher grain yield than Turkish cultivar Gönen. Crude protein values were higher in Mediterranean cultivars with higher nitrogen amount in those from temperate climate. Clear differences between cultivars were found in water use efficiency (WUE) with higher values in mid-European cultivars due to simultaneously higher Evapotranspiration Efficiency (ETE) and Harvest Index (HI). In field experiments (2 years) biomass and grain yield were strongly influenced by cultivar with higher values in Mid-European cultivars than in Gönen. Similar results were found for WUE which was higher in cultivars from temperate climate because of higher ETE and HI. Italian cultivar Golia reached level of mid-European cultivars either in biomass and grain yield but also WUE and ETE. Early drought in 2011 lowered yield only in Mediterranean cultivars compared to terminal drought in 2010. Yield in cultivars from temperate climate was stable between years.

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