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Accueil du site → Master → Afrique du Sud → 2014 → The impact of smallholder irrigation schemes on job creation :The case of Mabunda, Seloane and Mariveni Irrigation Schemes, Mopani District, Limpopo Province

University of Limpopo (2014)

The impact of smallholder irrigation schemes on job creation :The case of Mabunda, Seloane and Mariveni Irrigation Schemes, Mopani District, Limpopo Province

Sambo, Famanda Thomas

Titre : The impact of smallholder irrigation schemes on job creation :The case of Mabunda, Seloane and Mariveni Irrigation Schemes, Mopani District, Limpopo Province

Auteur : Sambo, Famanda Thomas

Université de soutenance : University of Limpopo

Grade : Master of Science M.Sc. (Agriculture) 2014

The study was designed to establish the impact of irrigation schemes on job creation and also from the jobs created to differentiate permanent from temporary jobs. The focus of the study was on three smallholder irrigation schemes (Mabunda, Mariveni and Seloane, the irrigation schemes are located in Greater Giyani, Greater Tzaneen and Ba- Phalaborwa municipalities respectively). For the purpose of the study, Mabunda will be addressed as scheme 1, Mariveni as Scheme 2 and Seloane will be addressed as Scheme 3.The main crops cultivated in the three irrigation schemes are citrus, coupled with vegetables to generate funds when citrus is out of season. The study employed a case study approach and used both qualitative and quantitative methods to collect data. The study was implemented in two phases : the first phase focused on irrigation scheme participants, while the second phase focused on the community structures (livestock committee, youth, water committee and tribal council) that have been affected by the establishment of the irrigation schemes. Data was collected from the irrigation schemes beneficiaries and community structures by means of a structured questionnaire. No random selection method was used in the selection of irrigation scheme beneficiaries. This was influenced by the small number of beneficiaries in the three schemes (56).It was only the community structures that were randomly selected. One hundred and five (105) people were interviewed representing different structures in all three villages. Out of this figure thirty five(35) people were interviewed per village. Data collected was organized into themes for analysis. Data was analyzed manually, where the coded questionnaires were recorded into a spread sheet. The process of analysis was carried out by using qualitative description and descriptive statistics. Data was manually analysed and the output was discussed using tabulation and cross-tabulation of variables with percentages in descriptive statistics. From the spread sheet data was summarized manually. For the period 2006 to 2009, the irrigation schemes anticipated to create 42 permanent job opportunities with the exception of 2006 where the projected jobs were 32. For the same period, the following temporary job opportunities were anticipated : 121 in 2006,236 in 2008, 240 in 2010, 234 in 2012,233 in 2014 and 232 in 2016. The irrigation schemes also anticipated to inject the monetary value into the community in the form of basic salaries. In 2006, R839,996.76 was injected into the community in the form of salaries, 2008 – R1,509,060.33, 2010 – R1,775,531.58,from 2012 – 2018. R2,045,130.36, R2,381,396.14 and R2,772,145.45 injected into the community respectively, while the divisional management team were expected to receive, R27,525, R36,800, R35,920, R43,857 and R54,118 in the form of performance bonuses, in 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016 respectively. The actual permanent jobs created for the period 2005 to 2009 in Scheme 1, an average of 64.6 (the anticipated was 42), while the actual temporary jobs created averaged 395. Scheme 2, managed to create an average of 86 permanent jobs and 197 temporary jobs, while the anticipated was 42 and 240 respectively. In Scheme 3, averages of 74 permanent jobs were created while 55.4 temporary jobs were created. The irrigation schemes created more jobs than anticipated. This was influenced by the high rate of unemployment in the villages located next to the irrigation schemes and the irrigation schemes as the only job providers closer to the villages. Temporary workers are paid performance based salaries. For the period 2005 to 2009, they were paid as follows : in 2005, they were paid R0.35 per bag of oranges harvested. The actual salary earned per month was informed by the number of bags harvested for that particular month. The following years the salary was increased by five cent per bag. Permanent workers were paid an average salary of R2400.00 per month. The study recommended that the roads leading to the three irrigation schemes should be maintained to minimize fruit damage during transportation to the market. The schemes should also be financially assisted to acquire own farm equipment (tractors, trailers and trucks) and be trained on the maintenance of these equipment to reduce acquiring services from the private service providers. The three irrigation schemes use private transport to carry their produce to the market and they are charged for this service, hence, the acquisition of own transport is necessary.


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