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University of the Witwatersrand (2005)

A phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of indigenous agathosma species

Moolla, Aneesa

Titre : A phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of indigenous agathosma species

Auteur : Moolla, Aneesa

Université de soutenance : University of the Witwatersrand

Grade : Master of Pharmacy 2005

Résumé partiel
As part of an investigation of the biological activities of South African plants and due to their extensive traditional use and lack of scientific evidence, a phytochemical and pharmacological investigation was performed on 17 indigenous Agathosma species (19 samples). The chemical composition of the essential oils was determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Analysis resulted in the identification of 333 compounds. To evaluate the chemical similarities and differences, cluster analysis was used to assess the essential oil composition of the samples. The results showed qualitative and quantitative differences amongst the taxa. The essential oils of Agathosma hirsuta and A. zwartbergense are particularly rich in citronellal, hence they are tightly clustered in the dendrogram obtained from the cluster analysis. Linalool, myrcene and limonene are the major constituents of both A. capensis (Gamka) and A. capensis (Besemfontein). Qualitative and quantitative differences are noted in the chemical compositions of the leaf oils of Agathosma capensis (Gamka) and A. capensis (Besemfontein). Agathosma arida and A. lanata are united in a single cluster due to the compounds β-pinene, linalool and spathulenol being major components in both species. The presence of 1,8-cineole in large quantities in both Agathosma namaquensis (23.5%) and A. ovalifolia (9.7%), unites them in a single cluster. A wide chemical variability for the essential oils of indigenous Agathosma species has been demonstrated. There was considerable variation in the percentage oil yield of the essential oils. Agathosma hirsuta produced the highest yield (1.15%) whilst A. ovalifolia produced the lowest yield (0.16%). vi Previous studies have revealed that the coumarin and flavonoid components of Agathosma species are responsible for their biological activities. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to document the non-volatile composition of Agathosma species and to establish if phenolic patterns were present amongst the species. All species were found to be rich in flavonoids (i.e. flavones and flavonols). Many of the compounds detected were common to most of the species. A pure coumarin, puberulin, was identified in the diethyl ether extract of Agathosma ovata (round-leaf) and detected in the dichloromethane and methanol (1:1) extract of A. namaquensis. Agathosma species have been used traditionally to treat a wide variety of infections. They has been used as a cough remedy, for the treatment of colds and flu, kidney and urinary tract infections, for the treatment of cholera and other stomach ailments. Based on the extensive use and lack of scientific evidence, a study was embarked upon to determine its bioactivity. Using the disc diffusion assay as a preliminary screening and thereafter the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils and non-volatile compounds was assessed on two Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, one Gram-negative bacterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and one yeast, Candida albicans. All of the extracts proved to be active against the four pathogens tested with the exception of Agathosma bathii which showed poor activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC value of 32mg/ml).

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Page publiée le 11 janvier 2019