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Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (2015)

Revalorizando el bosque seco de algarrobo : estudio y análisis de la biodiversidad, distribución y conservación de los bosques secos en Lambayeque

Cuentas Romero, María Alejandra

Titre : Revalorizando el bosque seco de algarrobo : estudio y análisis de la biodiversidad, distribución y conservación de los bosques secos en Lambayeque

Auteur : Cuentas Romero, María Alejandra

Université de soutenance : Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú

Grade : Licenciado en Geografía y Medio Ambiente 2015

Résumé
On our planet, much of the continental area has been forested for millions of years. In Peru, the coast, highlands and jungle, have large forests, which together occupy 51% of the territory. Dry forests are characteristic ecosystems of the northern coast of Peru, and its key species Prosopis pallida, which represents not only an ecological but also economic value to communities surrounding these ecosystems. This research focuses on the forests of Lambayeque, being defined as representations of dry forests of carob tree those located in the Pomac Forest Historical Sanctuary, the ACP Chaparrí and ACR Huacrupe La Calera. Currently, it is clear that deforestation is the strongest cause of the reduction of many forest species. This coupled with the rapid changes in land use, forest fires and climate change are affecting many human communities and populations of animals and plants. One species that is threatened by these factors is, precisely, carob tree, so conservation along the dry forest ecosystem in its fullness is a priority. Therefore, the objective of this thesis is to identify and propose what strategies are most appropriate to conserve and manage the dry forests in an integrated manner so that resources and services offered by these ecosystems could be valorized. A methodology based on conservation biogeography, which included methods of species distribution modeling (MDE), remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS), was worked. The Maxent software, a modeling program based on the principle of maximum entropy, for the present potential of the carob tree distribution, and its potential future distribution (2050) under two scenarios RCP 2,6 and 8,5 was used, resulting in an unexpected increase in the potential of northern Peru to host the species. To understand the dynamics of dry forests in terms of changes in land cover, fire frequency and landscape fragmentation, GIS tools and remote sensing methods (such as NDVI) were used to perform a spatial and multi-temporal analysis, resulting in variations in coverage plant, but they tend to reduce the vegetation to recent years. Furthermore, there is a clear expansion of the agricultural frontier, mainly due to deforestation. Moreover, one cannot ignore the role of ENSO events in an area like this, since their effects influence the regeneration of forests. The field work consisted of two main parts. In first place, to obtain the importance value index (IVI) of the carob tree dry forest. The sampling method was the point – centered – quarter, obtaining a value of 53,01 for the carob tree, besides knowing the floristic composition of the forest, taking as main reference the ACR Huacrupe. In second place and finally, surveys and interviews with key players, park rangers and local people applied who confirmed the importance of the species to the maintenance of dry forests and as a contribution and economic support to various communities as well as the worrying situation of deforestation, illegal primarily for commercial purposes, habitat fragmentation, degradation and continuous reduction of carob trees. Présentation

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