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Universidad Nacional de Trujillo (2012)

Extracción y caracterización química y reológica de hidrocoloide de opuntia spinulifera con perspectivas de aditivo en la industria de alimentos

Vargas Rodríguez, Lorena

Titre : Extracción y caracterización química y reológica de hidrocoloide de opuntia spinulifera con perspectivas de aditivo en la industria de alimentos

Auteur : Vargas Rodríguez, Lorena

Université de soutenance : Universidad Nacional de Trujillo

Grade : Doctora en Ciencias Ambientales 2012

Résumé
The hydrocolloid at cladodes of Opuntia, is a molecule of secondary metabolism, it´s little known about their physical and chemical properties. The study developed in this work contributes to reassess the genus Opuntia (prickly pear) as a source for obtaining from additive at the food industry. In this work were established a methodology of extraction, which involved the optimization of several parameters of the raw material stage to extract. The Opuntia spinulifera was selected due to their higher content of hydrocolloid ; it was obtained a extraction percentage of 17 % fresh basis. The appearance of the precipitated product is whitish strands, while the dry hydrocolloid powder is a pearly white and low brightness with aw 0.47 that protects it from attack by microorganisms. The hydrocolloid structure is polyanionic species of essentially carbohydrate composition. The 9.14% of its weight are uronic acids, their behavior is a weak monoprotic acid (pKa of 7.04). In the physical characterization, it was shown that the hydrocolloid dispersions are non-Newtonian fluids a high degree of pseudoplasticity. The viscosity values were stable thereof to changes in pH (4.0, 7.0 and 10.0) and temperature (15-65 °C). In analyzing the effect of mono and divalent cations (I=0.05 M), it was determined that a group of negative impact on the viscosity (Cu+2 e Fe+2). And others cations (Ca+2, Na+1 y K+1) increase slightly. The hydrocolloid obtained has great prospects for use in foods as a result of their properties determined. The next recommended for this application hydrocolloid is stabilized emulsions and suspensions. Additional contributions are the proximal chemical analysis of Opuntia spinulifera, medullary parenchyma Opuntia, a hydrocolloid acid peptic not of the cladode.

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