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AFYON KOCATEPE UNIVERSITY (2011)

SUSTAINABLE UTILIZATION and MANAGEMENT of ACIGÖL WATERSHED WITH REMOTE SENSING and GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS

BAHADIR Muhammet

Titre : SUSTAINABLE UTILIZATION and MANAGEMENT of ACIGÖL WATERSHED WITH REMOTE SENSING and GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Uzaktan Algılama ve Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri ile Acıgöl Havzası’nın Sürdürülebilir Kullanımı ve Yönetimi

Auteur : BAHADIR Muhammet

Université de soutenance : AFYON KOCATEPE UNIVERSITY

Grade : DOKTORA TEZİ 2011

Résumé
In this study the sustainable utilization and management of Acıgöl Watershed which is a semi-arid and significant saline marsh area in our country. Acıgöl Watershed is located in the southwest part of our country between the Mediterranean and the Aegean Geographical Regions. Although at first glance the watershed gives the impression of an arid, barren, unproductive area it is actually highly efficient for mainly sodium sulfate, salt and livestock production. All the characteristics of the natural environment of the watershed were analyzed as ariority and spatial queries were carried out. In the study, geographical information systems were used to prepare maps and carry out numerical queries, remote sensing was used to determine the changes in the use of the natural habitat of Acıgöl Watershed while statistical methods were used to determine the future trends and queries of the quantitative findings in the watershed. Tectonics and karstification have had a major role in the formation of Acıgöl Watershed. The geomorphology has been influenced mainly by tectonics and karstification processes, fluvial processes have shaped significant geomorphologic shapes in detail. As a result of severe drought, the watershed area has been taking shape under semi-arid climate conditions until recently, during the past years desertification has started in the lake and its close vicinity because of increasing drought. The watershed climate is semi-arid in character ; this situation has increased water demand and caused extreme usage causing the lake, underground waters, springs and running waters to go into a drying process. This process has also disrupted the hydrological balance of the watershed. The flora of the watershed consists viii of forests and brush in mountain areas and grass formations in the lowlands. The watershed terrain has developed in harmony with the semi-arid climate conditions, the main problem in the lowlands of the watershed is desertification and salinity. Although population movements and numbers in the watershed area have differed during the years, after 1990 migration outside the watershed area started and the mountain villages started to become vacated. Settlements have intensified in the lowlands and mountain foot area. The economic functions are based on salt production, animal husbandry, cottage industries and agriculture. It is very important for sustainable usage and management to identify the general outlook of the watershed and monitor changes in land use. This is why the problems in the watershed have been identified in detail and planning proposals towards their resolution have been made. The leading problems in the watershed area are seismicity, landslides, desertification, salinity, wind erosion, drought and water shortage. The changes in land use were determined by remote sensing from 1975 to 2005, mapped and analyzed. The most significant changes in the watershed area had been with pastureland, agricultural and forest lands ; during the recent past agricultural land has decreased while the grazing land has increased. Although major changes have occurred during the years in forest areas, an increase and decrease trend is evident. Significant changes have occurred in the lake area and surface waters according to the years and the lake area has decreased 2/3 in size from 1975 to 2005. Statistical analyses have been applied for the determination of sustainable watershed usage and projection of future trends ; relevant approaches in this direction have been developed as well. Trend analyses were carried out separately for each spatial element and the possible situation for 2020 was investigated. Thus the situation of each spatial element in the future and what needed to be done was assessed within a balance of use-protect and manage. A watershed management plan until 2020 has been put forward by taking all these studies into consideration.

Mots clés : Acıgöl, watershed management, drought, sustainable utilization

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Page publiée le 21 janvier 2019, mise à jour le 30 décembre 2022