Informations et ressources scientifiques
sur le développement des zones arides et semi-arides

Accueil du site → Doctorat → Allemagne → Flash floods and their effects on the development in El-Qaá plain area in South Sinai, Egypt : a study in applied geomorphology using GIS and remote sensing

Johannes Gutenberg- Universität Mainz (2008)

Flash floods and their effects on the development in El-Qaá plain area in South Sinai, Egypt : a study in applied geomorphology using GIS and remote sensing

Sherief, Youssef Shawky Youssef

Titre : Flash floods and their effects on the development in El-Qaa ? plain area in South Sinai, Egypt : a study in applied geomorphology using GIS and remote sensing

Auteur : Sherief, Youssef Shawky Youssef

Université de soutenance : Johannes Gutenberg- Universität Mainz

Grade : Doktor der Naturwissenschaften 2008

Résumé
The arid regions are dominated to a much larger degree than humid regions by major catastrophic events. Although most of Egypt lies within the great hot desert belt ; it experiences especially in the north some torrential rainfall, which causes flash floods all over Sinai Peninsula. Flash floods in hot deserts are characterized by high velocity and low duration with a sharp discharge peak. Large sediment loads may be carried by floods threatening fields and settlements in the wadis and even people who are living there. The extreme spottiness of rare heavy rainfall, well known to desert people everywhere, precludes any efficient forecasting. Thus, although the limitation of data still reflects pre-satellite methods, chances of developing a warning system for floods in the desert seem remote. The relatively short flood-to-peak interval, a characteristic of desert floods, presents an additional impediment to the efficient use of warning systems. The present thesis contains introduction and five chapters, chapter one points out the physical settings of the study area. There are the geological settings such as outcrop lithology of the study area and the deposits. The alluvial deposits of Wadi Moreikh had been analyzed using OSL dating to know deposits and palaeoclimatic conditions. The chapter points out as well the stratigraphy and the structure geology containing main faults and folds. In addition, it manifests the pesent climate conditions such as temperature, humidity, wind and evaporation. Besides, it presents type of soils and natural vegetation cover of the study area using unsupervised classification for ETM+ images. Chapter two points out the morphometric analysis of the main basins and their drainage network in the study area. It is divided into three parts : The first part manifests the morphometric analysis of the drainage networks which had been extracted from two main sources, topographic maps and DEM images. Basins and drainage networks are considered as major influencing factors on the flash floods ; Most of elements were studied which affect the network such as stream order, bifurcation ratio, stream lengths, stream frequency, drainage density, and drainage patterns. The second part of this chapter shows the morphometric analysis of basins such as area, dimensions, shape and surface. Whereas, the third part points the morphometric analysis of alluvial fans which form most of El-Qaá plain. Chapter three manifests the surface runoff through rainfall and losses analysis. The main subject in this chapter is rainfall which has been studied in detail ; it is the main reason for runoff. Therefore, all rainfall characteristics are regarded here such as rainfall types, distribution, rainfall intensity, duration, frequency, and the relationship between rainfall and runoff. While the second part of this chapter concerns with water losses estimation by evaporation and infiltration which are together the main losses with direct effect on the high of runoff. Finally, chapter three points out the factors influencing desert runoff and runoff generation mechanism. Chapter four is concerned with assessment of flood hazard, it is important to estimate runoff and tocreate a map of affected areas. Therefore, the chapter consists of four main parts ; first part manifests the runoff estimation, the different methods to estimate runoff and its variables such as runoff coefficient lag time, time of concentration, runoff volume, and frequency analysis of flash flood. While the second part points out the extreme event analysis. The third part shows the map of affected areas for every basin and the flash floods degrees. In this point, it has been depending on the DEM to extract the drainage networks and to determine the main streams which are normally more dangerous than others. Finally, part four presets the risk zone map of total study area which is of high inerest for planning activities. Chapter five as the last chapter concerns with flash flood Hazard mitigation. It consists of three main parts. First flood prediction and the method which can be used to predict and forecast the flood. The second part aims to determine the best methods which can be helpful to mitigate flood hazard in the arid zone and especially the study area. Whereas, the third part points out the development perspective for the study area indicating the suitable places in El-Qaá plain for using in economic activities.

Présentation

Version intégrale

Page publiée le 11 mars 2009, mise à jour le 12 janvier 2019