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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Autriche → Use and re-use of wind catchers as a natural ventilation and cooling system for residential buildings

Technische Universität Wien (2018)

Use and re-use of wind catchers as a natural ventilation and cooling system for residential buildings

Khalaj, Roshanak

Titre : Use and re-use of wind catchers as a natural ventilation and cooling system for residential buildings

Nutzung und Neunutzung von Windtürmen und Windfängern als natürliche Ventilations- und Kühlungssysteme für Wohnbauten

Auteur : Khalaj, Roshanak

Université de soutenance : Technische Universität Wien

Grade : Doktor Techn 2018

Résumé
Depletion of natural resources, global warming and increase of fossil-fuel price is a real concern of human beings. Moreover, the population growth has caused more than 200% increase of CO2 emission from 1995 to 2013. Buildings sector account for more than 40% of the total worlds energy consumption. The fact is that energy used in our buildings, including ventilation, heating, and cooling systems accounts for more than 60% of total buildings energy consumption. Ventilation and cooling systems in buildings could be provided through natural or mechanical systems. On one hand, utilizing natural ventilation and cooling strategies cause a reduction of overall energy demand and releases less carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. On the other hand, due to the harmful effects of mechanical systems, the building sector has an increased concern to apply passive cooling strategies such as natural ventilation. Hence the application of passive cooling strategies in this case of natural ventilation and cooling systems in building design has become a major concern for researchers in the building sector. There are wide ranges of natural ventilation devices, but among all different types natural ventilation devices, the wind catcher is one of the devices which uses both wind and stack effects in the same device. Due to this situation and based on human needs, the author decided to investigate the wind catcher as a natural ventilation device as well as a cultural heritage element of the Middle East. Generally, due to the harsh weather (hot and arid - hot and humid) and social culture characteristics of the Middle East, it was not common to use modern windows to provide ventilation and space cooling. Usually windows are opened to the inner courtyard. Depending on the buildings in this region, a device was needed that could catch prevailing winds and fresh air from the outside and direct them inside the building. In addition, it was essential to install a device that could help to circulate inner air, then provide a way to exit the air from the inside to the outside. According to all these factors, traditional builders in these regions found wind catchers as the best solution. Due to this, the above-mentioned wind catcher is an environmentally friendly device. The wind catcher is an elaborate and notable architectural element that has a vertical shaft with openings. These openings are placed at the top of the shaft ; therefore they can catch more privileged wind. Otherwise, the wind catcher shaft is divided by inner blades (partitions) to make disparate shafts which allow air to enter from one, two, three, or four sides and exit from the other sides. Wind catchers were a part of the structure of the buildings in hot, dry, and humid regions but they differ in their design, decoration, height, openings, and cross section. Due to this matter, Middle Eastern countries have been selected for the foundations of inquiry. The wind catchers in these countries not only reveal prototypes, but also show that wind catchers can take different names. This reflects variations in the social and cultural pattern across cities in the Middle East.

Mots clés : Windturm / Ventilationssystem / wind catcher / ventilation system / Iran

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Page publiée le 23 janvier 2019