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Universidad Católica de Santa María (2018)

La Isla de Calor y la Incidencia de la Arborización Urbana en el Confort Térmico del Centro Histórico de la Ciudad de Arequipa 2017

Fuentes Huanqui, Giuliana María

Titre : La Isla de Calor y la Incidencia de la Arborización Urbana en el Confort Térmico del Centro Histórico de la Ciudad de Arequipa 2017

The island of heat and the incidence of the urban arborización in the thermal comfort of the historical center of the city of Arequipa 2017

Auteur : Fuentes Huanqui, Giuliana María

Université de soutenance : Universidad Católica de Santa María

Grade : Doctorado en Ciencias Ambientales 2018

Résumé
The enunciation of the present investigation has been denominated "The island of heat and the incidence of the urban arborización in the thermal comfort of the historical center of the city of Arequipa 2017”. The type of study corresponds to the area of observational, prospective, transversal and analytical, which aims to specify what is the heat island index in the city of Arequipa and through the categorization of tree species present in the historic center of the city it will be possible to determine the behavior of the most abundant species in their contribution to thermal comfort. The hypothesis proposes that the appropriate choice of urban arborization could affect the decrease of the phenomenon called heat island, generating a change in micro climatic conditions and directly influencing the thermal wellbeing of the population. The methodology used is divided into three scales of analysis ; First, an overview, to determine the heat island index, by comparing the temperature between the peri-urban and urban area for a period of 4 consecutive days with an interval of two hours in the city of Arequipa. Second, the urban trees were categorized into three sectors of the Historic Center of Arequipa, by means of a census and with the help of Google Earth, identifying the most abundant species and the total population, determined in this way if the city complies or not with the recommendations international Third, the behavior of the most common tree species in relation to temperature and humidity was analyzed As a conclusion it was detected that in the city of Arequipa the temperature difference between the Historical Center and the periurban zones is of 1.5 ºC. What confirms the existence of heat island. It was determined that the historic center has three very different zones in terms of the presence of urban arborization, two areas well below what is recommended by the WHO, and another area 0.6 times above these recommendations. It has been possible to demonstrate how urban arborization in the Historic Center of Arequipa, behaves as a regulator of microclimates, and that the species with the best behavior is Morus nigra.Later it is suggested that, in order to contribute to the environmental improvement of the city of Arequipa, reforestation of public spaces should be planned with species that increase the humidity and lower the temperature in hot periods. But also taking into account the native species

Mots clés Isla de Calor, arborización urbana, confort térmico. Island of Heat, urban tree planting, thermal comfort.

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