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Universidad de Córdoba (2018)

Nuevas estrategias en el manejo sostenible de la rotación tradicional trigo duro-girasol : introducción de cultivos intercalares y cultivos alternativos

Pedraza, Verónica

Titre : Nuevas estrategias en el manejo sostenible de la rotación tradicional trigo duro-girasol : introducción de cultivos intercalares y cultivos alternativos

New strategies for sustainable management of the traditional durum wheat-sunflower rotation : introducing cover crops and alternative crops

Auteur : Pedraza, Verónica

Université de soutenance : Universidad de Córdoba

Grade : Tesis Doctoral 2018

Résumé
Durum wheat-sunflower rotation is a common practice in rainfed arable areas in southern Spain. However, the increasingly demanding environmental requirements of the Common Agricultural Policy and the new challenges for food and agriculture in the 21st century are important aspects influencing farmers’ decision making each growing season. Nowadays, adapting the traditional rotation and the soil management practices to face these goals involves a sustainable management as well as a crop diversification. However, the lack of profitable alternatives makes future adoption difficult for Spanish arable crop farmers. The present thesis aims to assess the introduction of new crops and cover crops as sustainable alternatives to soil management system in traditional rainfed rotations, by inserting white mustard (Sinapis alba subsp. mairei) and narbon bean (Vicia narbonensis L.) cover crops and the new forage mixture narbon bean-black oat (Vicia narbonensis-Avena strigosa). To that end, a range of experiments has been carried out under field and controlled conditions at different locations of the province of Córdoba (Córdoba y Santa Cruz) and Sevilla (Carmona) between 2011-2016. The short-term results suggested that the tested cover crops may introduce improvements in soil protection, weed and sunflower broomrape control, increased durum wheat quality and higher soil moisture content and fertility after cover crops incorporation into the uppermost layer than other soil management systems such as reduced tillage or no tillage. However, these crops also have limitations and require a proper management that makes necessary further research to analyze the long-term effects and maximize the benefits of this practice in rainfed arable systems, especially in sunflower growth and yields. Results for the forage mixture showed that both species can form a balanced forage mixture for livestock diets, displaying higher dry matter yields and crude protein yield than common vetch-common oat traditional mixture, as well as similar crude protein content and other quality traits. Furthermore, the nitrogen contribution made to the system allows this mixture to be considered as a future alternative in crop rotations, obtaining the best results at a seeding rate of 49 kg/ha for narbon bean and 45.5 for black oat in dry years and at the seeding rates 91 and 24.5 and 70 and 35 kg/ha in rainy years with loamy and clay soils, respectively. Our results open a path of study for the future of arable crops and show that both cover crops and forage mixtures could be economically and environmentally promising crop alternatives in the traditional rotation under the Mediterranean rainfed conditions of southern Spain

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Page publiée le 11 février 2019