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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Espagne → 2017 → Programación de la fertirrigación en cultivos sin suelo en el sudeste español. Estudio de la nutrición cálcica

Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena (2017)

Programación de la fertirrigación en cultivos sin suelo en el sudeste español. Estudio de la nutrición cálcica

Alarcón Vera, Antonio Luis

Titre : Programación de la fertirrigación en cultivos sin suelo en el sudeste español. Estudio de la nutrición cálcica

Auteur : Alarcón Vera, Antonio Luis

Université de soutenance : Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena

Grade : Doctoral Tesis 2017

Résumé partiel
The present work is structured in two distinct blocks. In the first one, we study the water and mineral nutrition of soilless crops in the southeast of Spain, in order to develop a computer application that allows the management and programming of the fertigation of soilless crops or hydroponics. For this, a physical - chemical characterization of the behavior of the most widespread fertilizers in the processes of technified fertigation is carried out, the water consumption and the irrigation management of the different crops involved under different scenarios and irrigation water qualities are modeled and studied the different interactions between the ionic components of nutrient solutions applied to soilless crops. With this information and multitude of data obtained from field trials, a computer application is developed for the management and programming of the most widespread soilless crops (tomato, cucumber, melon, pepper, others), in different substrates (rockwool, perlite, coconut fiber, liquid medium, etc.), with or without recirculation of drainages and under different climates and casuistics. This program allows, through periodic chemical analysis, the management of irrigation and the fertilization of the soilless crops for its programming in the current automatic equipment of fertigation. This includes the nutrient solution to be applied, the irrigation dose, the amount and type of fertilizer to be put in each tank, the injection ratio in each of the concentrated solution tanks, the quantities necessary to provide acid to obtain the ideal pH, the final EC to be programmed, the percentage of drainage to be set, etc. Given that calcium as a macronutrient has a different behavior from the rest, which generates controversy among farmers, and that their needs, supplies and effects, even escape the management carried out by the program, since they depend on a multitude of factors of climatic, genetic or physiological nature, it is decided to go deeper into its study. For this, melon is chosen as a typical export crop, where calcium nutrition has an enormous impact on the final quality that reaches the consumer, and are studied the levels of calcium supplied, different input materials including new products such as calcium chelate s, interactions with other ions, distribution in the different parts of plant and fruit and the chemical forms under which it is found, etc. In this sense, calcium concentrations of less than 3 mM in the nutrient solution, representing a daily net calcium uptake of less than 1 mM per plant throughout the growing cycle, are found to be insufficient and cause symptoms of deficiency in leaves and fruits. In mature leaves predominates the inorganic insoluble Ca fraction, the Ca bound is the minority form. In young leaves the soluble Ca is usually the majority form, while the organic insoluble Ca is the minority. There are approximately 10 times more Ca total in mature leaves than in young ones.


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