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Wageningen Universiteit (1993)

Adaptation of barley to harsh Mediterranean environments

Oosterom, E. van

Titre : Adaptation of barley to harsh Mediterranean environments

Auteur : Oosterom, E. van

Université de soutenance : Wageningen Universiteit

Grade : PhD thesis 1993

Research Objectives
Barley is in Syria the dominant crop in areas receiving less than 300 mm annual precipitation. Grain yield is often below 1 ton ha -1, and is reduced by low temperatures in winter and terminal drought stress in spring. Variation in the timing and intensity of the stresses, however, can cause considerable fluctuations in yield between both locations and seasons. For environments where low yields are predictable, but not the stresses causing these low yields, selection for a stable yield across years and a reduced risk of no grain yield, is more important than selection for yield potential. Breeding targeted at these environments, however, is hampered by genotypex environment interactions.

This thesis had several aims. The first was the identification of a combination of morphological and physiological traits, or a plant ideotype, related to adaptation of barley to environments where both low temperatures early in the season and high temperatures and drought during grain filling (terminal drought) are likely. A next step was assessing the effect of plant ideotype on yield in contrasting environments and the identification of the most appropriate environment to select for plant ideotype and yield under stress. These results together culminated in the development of a selection procedure for breeding programs targeted at harsh Mediterranean environments.

Mots clés : plant breeding / edaphic factors / climatic factors / salt tolerance / temperature resistance / cold resistance / drought resistance / hordeum vulgare / barley / middle east


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