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Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (URFPE) 2015

Investigação da dinâmica dos processos hidrológicos e sedimentológicos em escala de parcela no semiárido de Pernambuco

SILVA, José Roberto Lopes da

Titre : Investigação da dinâmica dos processos hidrológicos e sedimentológicos em escala de parcela no semiárido de Pernambuco

Auteur : SILVA, José Roberto Lopes da

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (URFPE)

Grade : Doutorado em Engenharia Agrícola 2015

Résumé
The semiarid region of Brazilian Northeast is characterized by presenting spatio-temporal variability of meteorological and hydrological variables, and in recent years comes to checking an increase of degraded areas in the region because of intensive soil use and absence of conservation practices. The inappropriate use of soil associated with climate change is unleashing and accelerating desertification processes. The characterization of the dynamics of hydrological and sedimentological processes in these regions become essential, since there is great shortage for a database in the semiarid watersheds that can support the management of water resources and soil conservation and provide subsidies for the use of models and generate future scenarios. Within this context the present research aims to evaluate the efficiency of conservation practices alternative and low cost in reducing soil loss and water as well as in maintaining soil moisture and dynamic surface temperature, through the investigation of hydrological and sedimentological processes in plot scale under different conditions of use and vegetation cover in semiarid region, in order to subsidize actions for the management and conservation of water and soil. The research was conducted in the County of Pesqueira, Agreste region of Pernambuco. Moisture dynamics, water loss and soil were evaluated in the following conditions of use : Plot with Natural Cover (PCN), Plot with Bare Soil (PD), Plot with Barrier of forage Palm (PBP) and Plot with Mulching (PCM). The results showed that the use of mulching as compared to bare soil promoted reduction of soil surface temperature during the day and increase overnight. The mulch was effective in reducing runoff and erosion control. The use of the barrier with forage palm was efficient in reducing soil loss, and proved to be a promising technique for conservation region. Among the conditions of covers evaluated the plot with bare soil was the one with the higher correlation between precipitation and runoff. In general the portion with forage palm (PBP) had moisture levels above the other treatments, showing to be a catchment system in situ efficient for the evaluated local conditions, mainly after the establishment of rain. The temporal stability of the moisture has been identified, and the stable points correlated well with the global average, with coefficients of determination (R²) above 0.90, the same can be used accurately to estimate soil moisture measurements in future. The Hydrus-1D model was able to simulate successfully moisture dynamics in the soil over time for the conditions of bare soil and natural cover, at a depth of 20 cm. Based on the analyzed period database it has been possible to present monthly values of soil moisture reference to investigated conditions, and thus subsidize studies of hydrological and sedimentological modeling in the region.

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