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University of the Punjab, Lahore (2010)

SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF AGROFORESTRY IN PUNJAB

AKMAL RAHIM, SYED MUHAMMAD

Titre : SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF AGROFORESTRY IN PUNJAB

Auteur : AKMAL RAHIM, SYED MUHAMMAD

Université de soutenance : University of the Punjab, Lahore

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2010

Résumé partiel
Against a world average of 25% area under forests, Pakistan has around 5% and Punjab has only 2% area under manageable and productive forests. The present deteriorating condition of the forests in Punjab has bleak prospects of improvement and expansion in near future due to ever increasing demand for agriculture produce. Moreover, to add to the constraints, neither can additional water be spared to undertake forestry operations, nor enough funds are available even if new areas are earmarked for planting trees. Consequently the Province of Punjab has to rely on imported wood and wood products to the tune of 8 billion rupees, due to exponential increase in population and increasing demand for wood and paper. In view of the present situation the best possible solution seems to be offered by Farm Forestry/Agroforestry that models planting trees and agricultural crops together, which unfortunately, has not been utilized to its full potential. Around 67% of the land of Punjab is under Batani irrigated agriculture and if agroforestry is properly practiced, the trees raised by the farmers will not only contribute, however little, to improve forest cover, but will also serve as a cushion against emergencies will serve as an additional income for the fanner. The Punjab Forest department has made special strides towards introducing farm forestry to farmers over the past 30 years by extending awareness and training programs to farm foresters and promoting donor supported projects. The present study is an assay of the shift from state to social forestry and generation of direct and indirect tbenefits from this shift. For the purpose of this study the province of Punjab was divided into four agroecological zones, namely, Agroeclogical zone III- A (Sandy Desert), Agroeclogicalzone III- B (Sandy Desert), Agroeclogicalzone IV- A (Northern Irrigated Plains), Agroeclogical zoneV-(Barani). A questionnaire-based survey was carried out in257 farm plantations from the four zones, keeping in view the zonal physiography, ecology, climate, soil, agriculturalcrops,wateravailability and ground water viz-a-viz the choice of species. The survey results gave fairly representative indicators revealing that the trend of planting trees increased during 1995 to 2000 and has decreased thereafter. This trend was acquired and preferred by agrofanners possessing small holdings, who admitted it to be a source of additional income. The choice of species by 87%of the agrofarmers was Eucalyptus, in spite of the fact that the environmentalist lobby discourages its plantation. The most preferred plantation design was the Linear Model and the 44% of the agrofarmers opted for 5x5 ft spacing. After concluding from the results of the survey, that agroforestry is beneficial to the fanner both socially and economically, and that the potential has not been utilized fully, suggestions to further promote agroforestry/social forestry have been made. In this context some tree species likeShisham, Albizzia, Jantcr (Sesbaneaacgyptiaca)and Iple Iple that are nitrogen fixing and improve die soil fertility have been recommended to be grown on the agricultural lands.

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