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Lanzhou University (2018)

The Effects of Plastic-film Mulch on the Grain Yield,Root Characteristics and Nutrient Uptake of Maize Vary with Cultivar in A Semiarid Site


Titre : The Effects of Plastic-film Mulch on the Grain Yield,Root Characteristics and Nutrient Uptake of Maize Vary with Cultivar in A Semiarid Site

Auteur : 王琳;

Grade : Doctoral Dissertation 2018

Université : Lanzhou University

Résumé partiel
Plastic-film mulch is an agricultural technology widely used for maize(Zea mays L.)production in agricultural areas of loess plateau in China.However,currently maize breeding in China has not targeted the plastic-film mulch ridge-furrow systems widely used in northern China,but the effects of the interaction between cultivar and plastic-film mulch on the grain yield,root characteristics,root/shoot,nutrient absorption and transport were less.It is very important to select the suitable cultivar for improve the yield and quality of grain in a cold semiarid environment.Five maize hybrids,Jiusui 4(JS) ;Jixiang 1(JX) ;Pingyu 8(PY) ;Xianyu 335(XY)and Yuyuan 5(YY),were assessed by field experiment in 2014 and 2015 in plastic-film mulched(M)and non mulched ridge-furrow(NM)plots in yuzhong county,Gansu province(35°54′N,104°05′E).On the basis,exploring differences among treatments on grain yield,yield components,water use efficiency,root biomass,root length density,root/shoot,nitrogen(phosphorus)absorption and translocation.Whether the effects of plastic-film mulch on these items of maize varies among cultivars.In order to illuminate the effects of plastic film mulch on maize yield,root distribution and nutrient absorption of different varieties,choose the judge index of high yield and quality maize,select suitable cultivars to grow to maximize maize production in the plastic-film mulched ridge-furrow technology is an objective of both breeders and agronomists,further,to provide important scientific basis for improving the yield and quality of breed new varieties.The main results as below:1.In 2014,the grain yield of the five cultivars varied from 685 to 898 g m-22 with no mulch,and from 966 to 1228 g m-22 under mulch.In 2015(drier than in 2014),the grain yield varied from 179 to 353 g m-22 without mulch,and from 548 to 1021 g m-2with mulch.By incorporating the variation in grain yield over cultivars,mulch treatments and cropping years,Jixiang 1 was the highest yielding cultivar.Compared with no mulch,plastic film mulch doubled grain yield in Pingyu 8,Jinsui 4 and Xianyu 335 and tripled in Yuyuan 5 and Jixiang 1.There was a significant two-way interaction between cultivar and mulch on maize grain yield.A moderate aboveground biomass and high harvest index may give satisfactory grain yield in plastic-film mulched or non-mulched fields in hydrothermally-limited areas.2.Mulch generally increased the length of the spike,kernel number(per cob or area),kernel weight and reduced the length of the bare length,the present study showed that the mulch effect on the length of the spike,kernel number and kernel weight varied with cultivar.The key to stable grain yield is to ensure cob number in the field.And larger grain morphology(hundred grain weight)suit to get higher grain yield,especially in hydrothermally-limited areas.Increasing the number of ears,grain number and grain weight is the key to breeding and screening cultivars for high yield.3.Each year,the WUE in Jixiang 1 were 1.8 and 3.2 g m-2mm-22 with or without mulch respectively,which were higher than Yuyuan 2,Jinsui 4 and Xianyu 335.Differences in maize water use efficiency(grain yield per unit of evapotranspiration)as affected by mulch and cultivar paralleled those of grain yield due to minor effects of mulch and cultivar on growing-season evapotranspiration.Plastic-film mulch increased the maize soil water use efficiency(WUE),and resolved the contradiction between the large amount of precipitation and the inconsistency of maize development in the early spring maize in arid region.4.Averaging years and mulch treatments,Yuyuan 5 had the highest root biomass(123 g m-2)while Jixiang 1 had the smallest root biomass(88.5 g m-2)in the upper 60cm soil layer,and mulch increased the root length of Pingyu 8 and Xianyu 335.Plastic-film mulch improved maize root biomass and root length density in the upper60 cm soil profile,the effects of plastic-film mulch on maize root biomass and root length density varied with cultivar.

Mots clés : Plastic-film mulch; maize cultivars; soil water; water use efficiency; maize yield; harvest index; root architecture; nutrient absorption and translocation;

Présentation (CNKI)

Page publiée le 15 avril 2019