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Universidade Federal de Viçosa (2006)

Relative production of the bean plant irrigated with saline water

Gonçalves Oliveira Flavio

Titre : Relative production of the bean plant irrigated with saline water

PRODUÇÃO RELATIVA DO FEIJOEIRO IRRIGADO COM ÁGUA SALINA

Auteur : Flavio Gonçalves Oliveira

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal de Viçosa

Grade : Doctor Scientiae 2006

Résumé
There is a need for studies concerning to the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cropping in arid and semi-arid regions under salinity conditions. So, this study was carried out with the following objectives : a) to determine the saline status of the soil irrigated with fresh water (0.07 dS.m-1) and saline water (2 dS.m-1) ; b) to determine the parameters for predicting the relative grain production in the bean plant, Talisman cv., by applying methods based on the soil salinity (CEes), as well as on the relative deficit of the crop evapotranspiration and the water potential measured in the leaf at dawn, through the water stress day index (WSDI). The experiment was carried out in lysimeter station under protected environment, at the experimental irrigation and drainage area, in the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, located at 200 45’ S and 420 45’ W, Minas Gerais State. Before planting, the soil contained in lysimeters that would be irrigated with saline water was previously salinized until reaching, about 3.6 dS m-1 in the extract of the saturated soil paste, by using water added with NaCl and CaCl2 at proportions 3:2, except those irrigated with fresh water (control) which stayed with salinity of 0.4 dS m-1. The experiment was set up in entirely randomized design, with seven treatments and three replicates. The treatments consisted of seven leaching fractions corresponding to 3, 1 4, 16, 23, 25, 31 and 40% irrigation water depth, as using fresh water for the leaching fraction of 3%, but saline water for the other fractions. The Talisman cv. showed to be sensitive to salinity, and the highest efficiency for using water under saline condition was reached with the leaching fraction of 31%. Generally, the efficiency in using water decreased with the reduction in the leaching fractions. For Stewart method, the value of Ky (slope of the adjusted straight line) was 1.54. For the method by Mass and Hoffman, however, the salinity threshold for the Talisman cv. was 1,67 dS.m-1 and the reduction in relative production by unit increment in CEes above the salinity threshold of 15.057% by unit CEes. In the Katerji s method, the average water potential in the leaf of the bean plant irrigated with both fresh and salty water(14% leaching fraction) was -150 KPa and -230 KPa, respectively, as the relative production of the bean plant increases 3.5% by unit WSDI, whereas for the WSDI values of 14.5 KPa the productivity is 50%. The osmotic adjustment of the bean plant, Talisman cv., was found to be limited to a value of -280KPa for the leaf water potential measured at dawn. In general, the applied showed to be adequate to the evaluation of the bean plant productivity.

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