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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Espagne → 1990 → ESCORRENTIA Y EROSION HIDRICA PRODUCIDAS POR TORMENTAS EROSIVAS EN RELACION CON DIFERENTES MODELOS DE RECONSOLIDACION DEL SUELO (ATRIPLEX-PINO) EN AMBIENTE ARCILLOSO MEDITERRANEO SEMIARIDO

UNIVERSITAT DE VALÈNCIA (1990)

ESCORRENTIA Y EROSION HIDRICA PRODUCIDAS POR TORMENTAS EROSIVAS EN RELACION CON DIFERENTES MODELOS DE RECONSOLIDACION DEL SUELO (ATRIPLEX-PINO) EN AMBIENTE ARCILLOSO MEDITERRANEO SEMIARIDO

MARTINEZ GOMEZ M. VICTORIA

Titre : ESCORRENTIA Y EROSION HIDRICA PRODUCIDAS POR TORMENTAS EROSIVAS EN RELACION CON DIFERENTES MODELOS DE RECONSOLIDACION DEL SUELO (ATRIPLEX-PINO) EN AMBIENTE ARCILLOSO MEDITERRANEO SEMIARIDO

Auteur : MARTINEZ GOMEZ M. VICTORIA

Université de soutenance : UNIVERSITAT DE VALÈNCIA

Grade : Tesis Doctorales 1990

Résumé
Experimental erosion plots located in a hilly area of internal Sicily (Italy) are made. Clay soils, semiarid mediterranean climate and anthropic degradation characterized the zone. Natural rainfall is the cause of superficial water erosion, so it was studied. Influence of vegetation cover as protection has been researched ; shrubs-weed, pine-weed and bare soil systems were defined. Measures of superficial water erosion were made using Gerlach’s type collectors. Soil samples were analyzed to assess erodibility. Special interest is taken in determining granulometry and stability of structure in laboratory ; two different energies were applied for establishing the resistance of aggregates. Nutrient losses and erosion impact, such as the contribution of eutrophic substances to watershed, were estimated in relation to loose sediment characteristics. Also, soil loss was determinated and compared with USLE estimation. Results show that in Mediterranean semiarid climate, on clay soil, superficial water erosion occurs only by a few storms. Reconsolidation of degraded soil and its protection due to shrubs is always the greatest 12 times bigger than pine protection such with little erosivity as high. Soil losses measured by year are in shrubs plot of 3.5 g/m ; in pines plot superior at 1 kg/m ; and in bare soil plot of 10.6 kg/m. USLE estimation produced higher values of soil loss ; this difference is discussed, and the probable overestimation of K is noted. The proposed structure analysis has been demonstrated useful in defining the plots, because of the different resistence of aggregates obtained for each one. However, textural analysis didn’t give any significant difference. For the environmental impact, it is found the enrichment of sediments with respect to soil matrix in OM, N and P. But this impact is limited by the amount of soil loss. Analysis of runoff shows that high contents of OM and Na+ are probably bounded to vegetal species.

Descriptores : CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Y DEL ESPACIO, HIDROLOGIA, EROSION DEL AGUA, EDAFOLOGIA, CONSERVACION DE SUELOS

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