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Hebron University (2013)

Genetic diversity of Palestinian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)cultivars using different DNA-based markers

Arwa M. Naser Mujahed

Titre : Genetic diversity of Palestinian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)cultivars using different DNA-based markers

Auteur : Arwa M. Naser Mujahed

Université de soutenance : Hebron University

Grade : Master of Science in Natural Resources and it’s Sustainable Management 2013

Résumé
Identification of the Palestinian grapevine cultivars is still obscure. Development of a common database based on molecular analysis would seem to be priority to determine the true number of the existing cultivars and their relationships. The main goals of this study were to determine the number of genetically different grapevine cultivars that were actually collected in Palestine using DNA-based RAPD and ISSR techniques ; to infer possible cases of synonymy and homonymy ; and to evaluate the genetic relationships of the characterized cultivars. A total of 36 grapevine cultivars were surveyed throughout Bethlehem and Hebron regions of West-Bank, Palestine. Genomic DNA was extracted from fresh leaves of single adult trees using the DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen Inc.). 25 RAPD primers (Sigma-Aldrich) and 20 ISSR primers were used for the amplification of the DNA banding patterns followed by PCR reactions. From these primers, 21 RAPD primers and 18 ISSR primers were produced clear and informative bands and therefore were used in this study, however, the remaining primers which produced indistinct and ambiguous bands were excluded from the analysis. RAPD primers produce 186 amplified loci in which 124 were polymorphic with average polymorphism 68.1%, whereas, ISSR primers produce 57 amplified loci, in which 55 were polymorphic with average polymorphism 88%. Primers OPG-13 (from RAPD group) and S-31 (from ISSR group) presented the maximum number of amplified bands and thereby, were considered as the most powerful primers. Concerning the relatedness of the grapevine cultivars, RAPD primers showed an average genetic distance of 0.07 (93% similarity) between Jandali-taweel-mofarad and Jandalikurawi-mlzlz cultivars, whereas, the maximum genetic distances of 0.50 exhibited between Romi-aswad-habe-tawele and Jandali cultivars. Regarding the ISSR primers, the distance range was 0.05 to 0.76 between (Jandali-tawel-mofrod and Jandali.Kurawi.Mlzlz) and (Shami and Marawi.Hamadani.Adi) respectively. Dendrogram constructed by UPGMA based on RAPD, ISSR and combinations of RAPD and ISSR banding patters revealed that high genetic relatedness were exist between many examined grapevine cultivars such as (Shami.Mtrtsh.Mlwn and Shami.Aswad), (Jandali.Tawel.Mafrod and Jandali.Kurawi.Mlzlz), (Baluti.Abiad and Zaini.Haba.Tawela), (Shami and Betuni) and (Darawishi and mtartash). Therefore, we might assume that each pair is genetically one cultivar but with different names. Moreover, several cultivars were commonly named as the same name ; however, our analysis showed that these cultivars are genetically different such as Jandali, Daboki, Marawi and Romi with their synonyms. On the other hand, there were several distinctive cultivars such as Romi.Aswad.Haba.Tawela, Marawi.Hamadani.Adi and Dabuki.Aswad.Baladi that might be used as promising cultivars toward future breeding programs in Palestine. Based on the obtained synonyms and homonyms the total number of the examined cultivars could be reduced into 20 instead of 36 grapevine genotypes.

Mots clés : Vitis venifera, Palestine, DNA-based markers, RAPD, ISSR.

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Page publiée le 14 janvier 2020