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Al-Quds University (2005)

Hydrochemical and hydrological Assessment of springs in Hebron area

Nidal Mohammad Abed-Hamid Nassar

Titre : Hydrochemical and hydrological Assessment of springs in Hebron area

Auteur : Nidal Mohammad Abed-Hamid Nassar

Université de soutenance : Al-Quds University

Grade : Master of Science in Environmental studies 2005

Résumé partiel
The study area for this research is the Hebron district lies between 83-120 N and 138-183 E referenced on the Palestinian Grid. Hydrological, hydrogeological, isotopical and hydrochemical studies conducted along the year. This work aims to find a data base about the springs of the study area, and to identify the amount of major and minor ions and to know the sources of the excess of some ions in many springs. Ready maps were used with other graphs determine the coordinates of the springs and their elevations above the Sea level. The geology of the area is composed of sedimentary carbonate rocks of Albian to Holocene age. Some of the springs tap the Albian and Turonian–Cenomanian regional aquifers, while the others discharge from the aquifers of the Quaternary age. The hydrological study aimed mainly to estimate runoff, recharge and the average depth of the annual rainfall in the district using suitable empirical formulas, the calculations gave results for them over the study area during the period 1970-2004, and these results are 55.7 mm (16.4 Mi.m3) which corresponds to about 11.4%, and 141.03 mm/yr which represents 25.05% of the annual rainfall, and 487.2 mm respectively, the annual precipitation in the study area is 166.1 Mill.m3. The hydrochemical study show that rain water is the only source of ground water recharge. Mixing with waste water leaking from the ancient cesspits and the waste water conduit or the infiltration of the leachates from washing the piles of animals dung by the rainfall in winter are factors responsible for pollutants in water. Samples analyzed for 2H and 18O, and others analyzed for 3H. The results show that the isotopic composition during the rainy season ranges for δ18O between -5.9%o and 5.27%o, and from -25.9%o to -21.1%o for δ 2H, and from 20.3 %o to 22.94%o for dexcess. The results plot in the Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line proving their rainwater origin. The present 3H content in precipitation is 5-6TU suggests recent recharge and tritium of Meteoric origin. In the EC-SAR classification the majority of the springs are suitable for irrigation with no limitations and they range from good to excellent for the same purpose based on SSP calculations. Piper diagram shows that 51.2% of the samples plot in the area of earth alkaline water with increased portions of alkalis with prevailing bicarbonate. Durov diagram appear the simple dissolution, the mixing process and the ion exchange of Na+1 with Ca+2 and Mg+2. Durov diagram shows that 48.8% of the springs indicates water exhibiting dissolution-or mixing.

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