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Wageningen University (2019)

The pursuit of self-reliance in the absence of aid A case study on the survival strategies of Somalis in Bole Mikael, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Holder, Marre ten

Titre : The pursuit of self-reliance in the absence of aid A case study on the survival strategies of Somalis in Bole Mikael, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Auteur : Holder, Marre ten

Université de soutenance : Wageningen University

Grade : Master Thesis International Development Studies 2019

Résumé
The tide is turning in Ethiopia. The country has traditionally held an open door policy towards refugees, but always kept its encampment policy and its restrictions on movement, employment and education. However, during the Leader’s Summit on Refugees and Migrants in 2016, the country has strengthened its commitment to refugees by making nine pledges to strengthen the rights of, and service delivery for refugees, expand the Out-of-Camp Policy, and gradually phase out of encampment towards socio-economic integration. Meanwhile, the number of refugees entering Ethiopia is rising, which makes preventing (onward) migration and hosting refugees at the same time more important and more challenging than ever. This situation requires a new approach for refugee aid organisations, especially regarding their urban refugee programming. One of the approaches is socio-economic integration and supporting self-reliance. This thesis aims to provide a better understanding of the pursuit of self-reliance of the Somali refugees residing in Bole Mikael, a predominantly Somali neighbourhood of the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa. It is based on data gathered through interviews with Somali entrepreneurs and aid agencies, and observations over a period of eleven weeks in and around Bole Mikael, Addis Ababa. This study shows how Somalis in Bole Mikael make use of the age-old Somali clan system that provides the basis for both individual and collective self-reliance. It reveals the truly global character of the Somali people, who have spread to all corners of the world and managed to remain closely connected through a flow of people, remittances and trade. They have shaped Bole Mikael into the Somali hub of Ethiopia, connected to the wider Somali web of people worldwide. The main function of the neighbourhood is the function of the network. The network that provides its members with both financial, as well as social support. While Somalis draw upon their clan values and traditions in their pursuit of self-reliance in order to survive in the urban context of Addis Ababa, this study also shows that the formal aid organisations have not yet determined their position in the urban context in general, or in the Somali situation specifically.

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Page publiée le 5 novembre 2019