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Freie Universität Berlin (2019)

Spatial Epidemiology of Rabies in Iran

Bashar, Rouzbeh

Titre : Spatial Epidemiology of Rabies in Iran

Räumliche Epidemiologie der Tollwut im Iran

Auteur : Bashar, Rouzbeh

Université de soutenance : Freie Universität Berlin

Grade : Doktors der Veterinärmedizin 2019

Résumé
Rabies is endemic and widespread in Iran. It is the most important zoonotic disease and constitutes a substantial public health problem in the country. The aim of this study was to investigate the rabies surveillance data in Iran. This study involved the retrospective analysis of fourteen years data (2000 to 2013), with the objective of preparing a spatial and descriptive epidemiological analysis of rabies from the Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies at the Pasteur Institute of Iran, the Ministry of Health, Statistical Centre of Iran, Iran’s Department of Environment and the Veterinary Organization in Iran. The parameters studied included suspected and confirmed rabies cases in humans and animals, their geographical locations, human and animal exposure and the cause of suspicion. A spatio-temporal analysis and descriptive scan statistic was utilized to search for significant terrestrial rabies clusters by year and species in different counties and provinces. The following data were collected and analysed : - all suspected and confirmed rabies cases during 14 years (2000-2013) - Domestic animal census (2000 -2013) - Animal vaccination data (2000-2013) - Geographical data for all provinces and counties in Iran - Human rabies data ; During the study period, 7,511 suspected rabies cases (63 in humans and 7448 in animals) were referred to the Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies at the Pasteur Institute of Iran and Fluorescent Antibody Test or Mouse Inoculation Test was used to detect rabies antigen in the fresh brain samples of the suspected cases. In 4,706 cases (43 human and 4663 animal cases), rabies was confirmed. In all provinces of Iran, cattle were the most frequently affected domestic animal (about 50% of rabid cases) and dogs were the main biting animals involved in suspected or confirmed rabies cases (65%). A total of 2185 dogs were tested, 1186 (54%) of which were positive for rabies. About 70% of rabid dogs were owned dogs. The results of this study showed that dogs are the most common vector of rabies in Iran. The urban cycle is the important epidemiological cycle for maintaining rabies and dogs are the most common vector of rabies to human in Iran. However, the incidence of rabies among humans is low in Iran and it would decrease further by improving the rabies control program and implementing better management of suspected cases.

Mots clés  : Rabies Man Animals Dogs Epidemiology Brain Immunofluorescence Iran

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