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Accueil du site → Master → Pays Bas → 2004 → Policy management support for preliminary environmental impact assessment of water resources development projects in the Nile basin

UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft (2004)

Policy management support for preliminary environmental impact assessment of water resources development projects in the Nile basin

Olet, E.I.P.

Titre : Policy management support for preliminary environmental impact assessment of water resources development projects in the Nile basin

Auteur : Olet, E.I.P.

Université de soutenance : UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2004

Résumé
The need for socio-economic development has resulted in over exploitation of water resources in river basins in the developing world. This is especially so in the Nile river basin where reliable electricity and improved water supply are key to achieving energyrequirements and increase in food production through irrigated agriculture. Likewise, it is necessary to meet rising demands for navigation, municipal and industrial water supply and to offer protection from droughts and devastating effects of floods.A number of environmental threats are associated with the foregoing developmentinitiatives, which include degradation of agricultural lands, loss of conservation areas,declining water quality, over exploitation of fisheries, eutrophication, invasive waterweeds, water borne diseases, changes in river morphology, induced seismic effects and harmful effects of droughts and floods. Sustainable development can only be achieved ifenvironmental concerns are integrated into the overall framework of water resources development (WRD) projects in river basins thereby conserving ecological resources.While methods for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of effects ofWRD projects on the environment are known, they are not integrated into river basin development because EIA is often not part of policy formulation. Most methods have been applied in the developed world and should be modified to suit local conditions in the developingworld and besides existing methods determine impact significance distinct from impact magnitude. This study develops tools for Policy Management Support towardsPreliminary Environmental Impact Assessment of water resources development projects in the Nile river basin thus providing an opportunity for integrating environmental concerns into policy formulation early in river basin planning and decision-making. An improved checklist is developed for various water resources development projects in the Nile basin based on internationally applied standards and a review of previously executed projects in the Nile basin. However since the checklist merely listsenvironmental effects, significant impacts are identified using a Boolean based cross impact analysis, and their magnitude detennined using the principle of the Battelle Environmental Evaluation system in a conceptual frame work.The conceptual framework involves engagement with stakeholders, consideration of development policies, identification of key issues, preliminary assessment of possible impacts, assignment of significance, consideration of mitigation options, and policyevaluation. The conceptual model is validated using the proposed Karuma falls hydropower project in Uganda. Although this procedure has been developed for dams and reservoirs, it can be modified to suit regional and sectoral planning efforts for preliminary EIA ofWRD Projects elsewhere in the developing world.In conclusion, the use of a checklist and a Boolean based Conceptual model in a Preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment helps in integrating environmental concerns into policy formulation early in decision making thereby ensuring sustainable economic development of water resources in river basins.

Mots Clés  : nile basin water resources development EIA dam projects

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