Informations et ressources scientifiques
sur le développement des zones arides et semi-arides

Accueil du site → Master → Pays Bas → 2009 → The water allocation systems in Tanzania : understanding the effects of formalization of water allocation systems to indigenous water users in Hingilili catchment

UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft (2009)

The water allocation systems in Tanzania : understanding the effects of formalization of water allocation systems to indigenous water users in Hingilili catchment

Mwakalukwa, T.A.

Titre : The water allocation systems in Tanzania : understanding the effects of formalization of water allocation systems to indigenous water users in Hingilili catchment

Auteur : Mwakalukwa, T.A.

Université de soutenance : UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2009

Résumé
The rapid population growth and economic development is causing water scarcity in manyparts of the world, and in particular sub Saharan Africa. The problem is neitherhomogenous nor constant over time ; it varies significantly over time and space. Thesolutions to these current and future pressures on water resources depend not only onaugmentation of water supply or demand management, but require a combination ofresponses. To this end, there is a consensus that the concept of Integrated Water ResourcesManagement (IWRM) could be used to solve the water management problems. Tanzaniafor instance is in the process of implementing this IWRM concept. Its current water policyand laws emphasize on formalizing water users institutions (informal water allocationssystems) as way of decentralizing water management from national level to water users.This study aims at understanding the effect of formalization of water allocation toindigenous water users in Hingilili River catchment in Tanzania. The methods used toobtain data included three months field work and in-depth literature review. During thefield work, in the form of semi-structured interviews and focus groups, several discussionswere held with the leaders of six water user groups’ lowland, and four user groups inhighlands. Also the villages and ward leaders were interviewed. To enhance the quality ofthe data triangulation was done through direct observations in the fields and discussionswith four elders (all above 70 years of age) both from the highlands and lowlands areas.Various documents and records from Pangani basin water office (PBWO), Same Districtcouncils, villages and water users groups’ leaders were collected, analyzed and they furtheradded more insight into the research results. To understand the effect of formalisation ofthe water rights, the intercept concept was used to analyze the relationship between theformal and informal water allocation systems.This research finds that there are clear formal structures identified at the national level tothe basin level, but the implementation of these formal systems at the grassroots level islagging behind. The spatial distance between the PBWO and indigenous water users whichformally should be filled by catchment committees which currently do not exist. InHingilili catchment, the establishment of formal water users’ entities has reduced conflictson water allocation among upstream and downstream users. Moreover there are interfacesbetween formal and informal water allocation systems at grassroots level in both waterallocation practices and conflict resolution mechanisms. On the other hand the researchfinds that there are still challenges that need to be addressed. For instance the establishmentof ginger crop in highland could create an imbalance in the system. Ginger requires moresupplementary irrigation water for almost nine months and its increased cultivation in thehighland will leads to more water abstraction and more water scarcity in lowland, apotential for renewed conflict in the catchment. Also granting water rights to each waterusers groups may increase conflict over water allocation, unless the catchment and subcatchment committee are well established to monitor and regulate water use.Finally, having formal arrangement that recognizes the importance of informal systemcould be a good way of decentralizing water resources management. I recommend that allwater users entities should be registered under PBWO as they operate within hydrologicalboundary and establishment of catchment

Sujets  : water allocation integrated water resources management catchment areas water rights Tanzania

Présentation

Page publiée le 22 février 2020