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UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft (2011)

Contribution of irrigation to sustainable agriculture in Jedeb river basin, Ethiopia

Birhanu, R.M. 

Titre : Contribution of irrigation to sustainable agriculture in Jedeb river basin, Ethiopia

Auteur : Birhanu, R.M. 

Université de soutenance : UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2011

Résumé
The unpredictable rainfall nature in Ethiopia and the lack of capacity of storing rainwater during the rainy season forces the majority of cultivated crops to be under rainfed agriculture. There is not adequate water for most farmers to cultivate more than one crop per year. So repetition of crop failure is occurring because of dry period and droughts, which have a consequence of serious food shortage currently occurring in the country. The study area, East Gojjam zone from 550,000 ha of agricultural land, only 5% is under irrigation. The farmers cultivate the land once per year during the rainy season. However, population keeps increasing, 3% annually, arable land per capital is very small, an average one ha, and low production from once per year, the rainfed crop production is insufficient to support the increasing food demand of the area. Jedeb-1 irrigation scheme is one of 5% irrigated land of the area. This scheme irrigates 268 ha of land currently by diverting water from Jedeb River. The objective of this study is assessing the existing agricultural practice of the scheme and the irrigation potential of Jedeb River after setting the demand of environmental flow and then gives appropriate irrigation improvement based on the outcome of existing condition. Four scenarios were developed to recommend appropriate irrigation improvement for the users. The first scenario represents the existing situation. The second scenario is the existing situation with increase 10% irrigation efficiency. The third scenario is to shift existing crops to marketable and high water demand crops that are barley and potato changed by wheat, cabbage and small vegetable crops. The last scenario is to shift existing crops to water saving crops which barely, maize and potato crops change by bean, sorghum and soybean. In order to recommend the better option, three methods were used. The first method which was used is using CROPWAT-8 program to calculate the crop water requirement of the irrigation scheme to know the water demand of each crop and balance it with the available water in the river to check whether it is possible to expand irrigated land or if the water is only enough to the existing area. The second method is allocate the available water for users. WAFLEX spread sheet model was used to allocate the available water in the river for the users. The model allocates the water for five users, Users-1 represent Jedeb-1 irrigation. User-2 represents Jedeb-2 irrigation. User-3 represents Jedeb-3 irrigation. User-4 represents Jedeb-4 irrigation. User-5 represents environmental flow requirement. The third method is cost - benefit analysis, to verify the economic feasibility of the scenarios.

Sujets  : irrigation irrigation schemes river basins agriculture environmental flows Ethiopia

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