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University of Nottingham (2019)

The origin and history of genetic diversity of local chickens in the Middle East and Africa.

Al-Jumaili, Ahmed S. Obaid

Titre : The origin and history of genetic diversity of local chickens in the Middle East and Africa.

Auteur : Al-Jumaili, Ahmed S. Obaid

Université de soutenance : University of Nottingham

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2019

Résumé partiel
Among the various livestock animals, chickens and their products (meat and eggs) are becoming increasingly important in sustaining human livelihood. They also represent an important model species in evolutionary studies. Today, four main types of domestic chicken may be recognised, chicken commercial breeds, fancy breeds, inbred research lines and indigenous village chicken breeds or populations. The latter are supplying high-quality protein to poor communities, particularly in Africa and Asia, contributing to food security, poverty alleviation and the management of natural resources. The importance of chicken arises from many features (e.g short generation time, facility to breed them in captivity) that make them an ideal model species in different areas including embryology, physiology and medicine (e.g. vaccine development). Closely associated with human society, they represent an important proxy for the understanding of the history of human communities.
The two aims of this thesis were (i) to evaluate different genetic markers for the understanding and unravelling of chicken history and (ii) to trace the migration routes of village chickens outside the probable domestication centre on the Indian subcontinent. The study involved analysis of samples of domestic chickens from Iraq, Ethiopia, Algeria, Libya, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, together with samples of the four junglefowl species (Ceylon, Grey, Green and Red junglefowl). All our domestic chicken populations originate from the West and North-West of the Indian subcontinent, a putative centre of domestication for the species. We used full genome sequence information of high coverage (30 X) with all samples used in this study mapped against the reference genome Galgal 5.0.

Mots clés  : Dispersal routes, Domestic chicken, Introgression, Middle East, Evolution, Genetic diversity

Présentation

Page publiée le 20 novembre 2019